Token Mor Stablecoin

Overview ERC20

Price
$0.00 @ 0.000000 AVAX
Fully Diluted Market Cap
Total Supply:
38,969.551694 MOR

Holders:
783 addresses

Transfers:
-

Contract:
0x87BAde473ea0513D4aA7085484aEAA6cB6EBE7e30x87BAde473ea0513D4aA7085484aEAA6cB6EBE7e3

Decimals:
18

Social Profiles:
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Contract Source Code Verified (Exact Match)

Contract Name:
Dai

Compiler Version
v0.6.12+commit.27d51765

Optimization Enabled:
No with 200 runs

Other Settings:
default evmVersion, GNU GPLv3 license

Contract Source Code (Solidity)

/**
 *Submitted for verification at Etherscan.io on 2021-11-06
*/

/**
 *Submitted for verification at BscScan.com on 2021-08-28
*/

// SPDX-License-Identifier: AGPL-3.0-or-later

/// DssDeploy.sol

// Copyright (C) 2018-2020 Maker Ecosystem Growth Holdings, INC.

// This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
// it under the terms of the GNU Affero General Public License as published by
// the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
// (at your option) any later version.
//
// This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
// but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
// MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
// GNU Affero General Public License for more details.
//
// You should have received a copy of the GNU Affero General Public License
// along with this program.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

pragma solidity >=0.5.12;

interface DSAuthority {
    function canCall(
        address src, address dst, bytes4 sig
    ) external view returns (bool);
}

contract DSAuthEvents {
    event LogSetAuthority (address indexed authority);
    event LogSetOwner     (address indexed owner);
}

contract DSAuth is DSAuthEvents {
    DSAuthority  public  authority;
    address      public  owner;

    constructor() public {
        owner = msg.sender;
        emit LogSetOwner(msg.sender);
    }

    function setOwner(address owner_)
        public
        virtual
        auth
    {
        owner = owner_;
        emit LogSetOwner(owner);
    }

    function setAuthority(DSAuthority authority_)
        public
        virtual
        auth
    {
        authority = authority_;
        emit LogSetAuthority(address(authority));
    }

    modifier auth {
        require(isAuthorized(msg.sender, msg.sig), "ds-auth-unauthorized");
        _;
    }

    function isAuthorized(address src, bytes4 sig) internal view returns (bool) {
        if (src == address(this)) {
            return true;
        } else if (src == owner) {
            return true;
        } else if (authority == DSAuthority(address(0))) {
            return false;
        } else {
            return authority.canCall(src, address(this), sig);
        }
    }
}

contract DSNote {
    event LogNote(
        bytes4   indexed  sig,
        address  indexed  guy,
        bytes32  indexed  foo,
        bytes32  indexed  bar,
        uint256           wad,
        bytes             fax
    ) anonymous;

    modifier note {
        bytes32 foo;
        bytes32 bar;
        uint256 wad;

        assembly {
            foo := calldataload(4)
            bar := calldataload(36)
            wad := callvalue()
        }

        _;

        emit LogNote(msg.sig, msg.sender, foo, bar, wad, msg.data);
    }
}

contract DSPause is DSAuth, DSNote {

    // --- admin ---

    modifier wait { require(msg.sender == address(proxy), "ds-pause-undelayed-call"); _; }

    function setOwner(address owner_) public override wait {
        owner = owner_;
        emit LogSetOwner(owner);
    }
    function setAuthority(DSAuthority authority_) public override wait {
        authority = authority_;
        emit LogSetAuthority(address(authority));
    }
    function setDelay(uint delay_) public note wait {
        delay = delay_;
    }

    // --- math ---

    function _add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = x + y;
        require(z >= x, "ds-pause-addition-overflow");
    }

    // --- data ---

    mapping (bytes32 => bool) public plans;
    DSPauseProxy public proxy;
    uint         public delay;

    // --- init ---

    constructor(uint delay_, address owner_, DSAuthority authority_) public {
        delay = delay_;
        owner = owner_;
        authority = authority_;
        proxy = new DSPauseProxy();
    }

    // --- util ---

    function hash(address usr, bytes32 tag, bytes memory fax, uint eta)
        internal pure
        returns (bytes32)
    {
        return keccak256(abi.encode(usr, tag, fax, eta));
    }

    function soul(address usr)
        internal view
        returns (bytes32 tag)
    {
        assembly { tag := extcodehash(usr) }
    }

    // --- operations ---

    function plot(address usr, bytes32 tag, bytes memory fax, uint eta)
        public note auth
    {
        require(eta >= _add(now, delay), "ds-pause-delay-not-respected");
        plans[hash(usr, tag, fax, eta)] = true;
    }

    function drop(address usr, bytes32 tag, bytes memory fax, uint eta)
        public note auth
    {
        plans[hash(usr, tag, fax, eta)] = false;
    }

    function exec(address usr, bytes32 tag, bytes memory fax, uint eta)
        public note
        returns (bytes memory out)
    {
        require(plans[hash(usr, tag, fax, eta)], "ds-pause-unplotted-plan");
        require(soul(usr) == tag,                "ds-pause-wrong-codehash");
        require(now >= eta,                      "ds-pause-premature-exec");

        plans[hash(usr, tag, fax, eta)] = false;

        out = proxy.exec(usr, fax);
        require(proxy.owner() == address(this), "ds-pause-illegal-storage-change");
    }
}

// plans are executed in an isolated storage context to protect the pause from
// malicious storage modification during plan execution
contract DSPauseProxy {
    address public owner;
    modifier auth { require(msg.sender == owner, "ds-pause-proxy-unauthorized"); _; }
    constructor() public { owner = msg.sender; }

    function exec(address usr, bytes memory fax)
        public auth
        returns (bytes memory out)
    {
        bool ok;
        (ok, out) = usr.delegatecall(fax);
        require(ok, "ds-pause-delegatecall-error");
    }
}

contract DSMath {
    function add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x, "ds-math-add-overflow");
    }
    function sub(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x, "ds-math-sub-underflow");
    }
    function mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x, "ds-math-mul-overflow");
    }

    function min(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function max(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        return x >= y ? x : y;
    }
    function imin(int x, int y) internal pure returns (int z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function imax(int x, int y) internal pure returns (int z) {
        return x >= y ? x : y;
    }

    uint constant WAD = 10 ** 18;
    uint constant RAY = 10 ** 27;

    //rounds to zero if x*y < WAD / 2
    function wmul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = add(mul(x, y), WAD / 2) / WAD;
    }
    //rounds to zero if x*y < WAD / 2
    function rmul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = add(mul(x, y), RAY / 2) / RAY;
    }
    //rounds to zero if x*y < WAD / 2
    function wdiv(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = add(mul(x, WAD), y / 2) / y;
    }
    //rounds to zero if x*y < RAY / 2
    function rdiv(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = add(mul(x, RAY), y / 2) / y;
    }

    // This famous algorithm is called "exponentiation by squaring"
    // and calculates x^n with x as fixed-point and n as regular unsigned.
    //
    // It's O(log n), instead of O(n) for naive repeated multiplication.
    //
    // These facts are why it works:
    //
    //  If n is even, then x^n = (x^2)^(n/2).
    //  If n is odd,  then x^n = x * x^(n-1),
    //   and applying the equation for even x gives
    //    x^n = x * (x^2)^((n-1) / 2).
    //
    //  Also, EVM division is flooring and
    //    floor[(n-1) / 2] = floor[n / 2].
    //
    function rpow(uint x, uint n) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = n % 2 != 0 ? x : RAY;

        for (n /= 2; n != 0; n /= 2) {
            x = rmul(x, x);

            if (n % 2 != 0) {
                z = rmul(z, x);
            }
        }
    }
}

contract DSToken is DSMath, DSAuth {
    bool                                              public  stopped;
    uint256                                           public  totalSupply;
    mapping (address => uint256)                      public  balanceOf;
    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint256)) public  allowance;
    string                                            public  symbol;
    uint8                                             public  decimals = 18; // standard token precision. override to customize
    string                                            public  name = "";     // Optional token name


    constructor(string memory symbol_) public {
        symbol = symbol_;
    }

    event Approval(address indexed src, address indexed guy, uint wad);
    event Transfer(address indexed src, address indexed dst, uint wad);
    event Mint(address indexed guy, uint wad);
    event Burn(address indexed guy, uint wad);
    event Stop();
    event Start();

    modifier stoppable {
        require(!stopped, "ds-stop-is-stopped");
        _;
    }

    function approve(address guy) external returns (bool) {
        return approve(guy, uint(-1));
    }

    function approve(address guy, uint wad) public stoppable returns (bool) {
        allowance[msg.sender][guy] = wad;

        emit Approval(msg.sender, guy, wad);

        return true;
    }

    function transfer(address dst, uint wad) external returns (bool) {
        return transferFrom(msg.sender, dst, wad);
    }

    function transferFrom(address src, address dst, uint wad)
        public
        stoppable
        returns (bool)
    {
        if (src != msg.sender && allowance[src][msg.sender] != uint(-1)) {
            require(allowance[src][msg.sender] >= wad, "ds-token-insufficient-approval");
            allowance[src][msg.sender] = sub(allowance[src][msg.sender], wad);
        }

        require(balanceOf[src] >= wad, "ds-token-insufficient-balance");
        balanceOf[src] = sub(balanceOf[src], wad);
        balanceOf[dst] = add(balanceOf[dst], wad);

        emit Transfer(src, dst, wad);

        return true;
    }

    /*
    function push(address dst, uint wad) external {
        transferFrom(msg.sender, dst, wad);
    }

    function pull(address src, uint wad) external {
        transferFrom(src, msg.sender, wad);
    }

    function move(address src, address dst, uint wad) external {
        transferFrom(src, dst, wad);
    }
    */


    function mint(uint wad) external {
        mint(msg.sender, wad);
    }

    function burn(uint wad) external {
        burn(msg.sender, wad);
    }

    function mint(address guy, uint wad) public auth stoppable {
        balanceOf[guy] = add(balanceOf[guy], wad);
        totalSupply = add(totalSupply, wad);
        emit Mint(guy, wad);
    }

    function burn(address guy, uint wad) public auth stoppable {
        if (guy != msg.sender && allowance[guy][msg.sender] != uint(-1)) {
            require(allowance[guy][msg.sender] >= wad, "ds-token-insufficient-approval");
            allowance[guy][msg.sender] = sub(allowance[guy][msg.sender], wad);
        }

        require(balanceOf[guy] >= wad, "ds-token-insufficient-balance");
        balanceOf[guy] = sub(balanceOf[guy], wad);
        totalSupply = sub(totalSupply, wad);
        emit Burn(guy, wad);
    }

    function stop() public auth {
        stopped = true;
        emit Stop();
    }

    function start() public auth {
        stopped = false;
        emit Start();
    }


    function setName(string memory name_) public auth {
        name = name_;
    }
}

contract Vat is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { require(live == 1, "Vat/not-live"); wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { require(live == 1, "Vat/not-live"); wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Vat/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    mapping(address => mapping (address => uint)) public can;
    function hope(address usr) external note { can[msg.sender][usr] = 1; }
    function nope(address usr) external note { can[msg.sender][usr] = 0; }
    function wish(address bit, address usr) internal view returns (bool) {
        return either(bit == usr, can[bit][usr] == 1);
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Ilk {
        uint256 Art;   // Total Normalised Debt     [wad]
        uint256 rate;  // Accumulated Rates         [ray]
        uint256 spot;  // Price with Safety Margin  [ray]
        uint256 line;  // Debt Ceiling              [rad]
        uint256 dust;  // Urn Debt Floor            [rad]
    }
    struct Urn {
        uint256 ink;   // Locked Collateral  [wad]
        uint256 art;   // Normalised Debt    [wad]
    }

    mapping (bytes32 => Ilk)                       public ilks;
    mapping (bytes32 => mapping (address => Urn )) public urns;
    mapping (bytes32 => mapping (address => uint)) public gem;  // [wad]
    mapping (address => uint256)                   public dai;  // [rad]
    mapping (address => uint256)                   public sin;  // [rad]

    uint256 public debt;  // Total Dai Issued    [rad]
    uint256 public vice;  // Total Unbacked Dai  [rad]
    uint256 public Line;  // Total Debt Ceiling  [rad]
    uint256 public live;  // Active Flag

    // --- Init ---
    constructor() public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    function _add(uint x, int y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = x + uint(y);
        require(y >= 0 || z <= x);
        require(y <= 0 || z >= x);
    }
    function _sub(uint x, int y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = x - uint(y);
        require(y <= 0 || z <= x);
        require(y >= 0 || z >= x);
    }
    function _mul(uint x, int y) internal pure returns (int z) {
        z = int(x) * y;
        require(int(x) >= 0);
        require(y == 0 || z / y == int(x));
    }
    function _add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function _sub(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }
    function _mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function init(bytes32 ilk) external note auth {
        require(ilks[ilk].rate == 0, "Vat/ilk-already-init");
        ilks[ilk].rate = 10 ** 27;
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Vat/not-live");
        if (what == "Line") Line = data;
        else revert("Vat/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Vat/not-live");
        if (what == "spot") ilks[ilk].spot = data;
        else if (what == "line") ilks[ilk].line = data;
        else if (what == "dust") ilks[ilk].dust = data;
        else revert("Vat/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function cage() external note auth {
        live = 0;
    }

    // --- Fungibility ---
    function slip(bytes32 ilk, address usr, int256 wad) external note auth {
        gem[ilk][usr] = _add(gem[ilk][usr], wad);
    }
    function flux(bytes32 ilk, address src, address dst, uint256 wad) external note {
        require(wish(src, msg.sender), "Vat/not-allowed");
        gem[ilk][src] = _sub(gem[ilk][src], wad);
        gem[ilk][dst] = _add(gem[ilk][dst], wad);
    }
    function move(address src, address dst, uint256 rad) external note {
        require(wish(src, msg.sender), "Vat/not-allowed");
        dai[src] = _sub(dai[src], rad);
        dai[dst] = _add(dai[dst], rad);
    }

    function either(bool x, bool y) internal pure returns (bool z) {
        assembly{ z := or(x, y)}
    }
    function both(bool x, bool y) internal pure returns (bool z) {
        assembly{ z := and(x, y)}
    }

    // --- CDP Manipulation ---
    function frob(bytes32 i, address u, address v, address w, int dink, int dart) external note {
        // system is live
        require(live == 1, "Vat/not-live");

        Urn memory urn = urns[i][u];
        Ilk memory ilk = ilks[i];
        // ilk has been initialised
        require(ilk.rate != 0, "Vat/ilk-not-init");

        urn.ink = _add(urn.ink, dink);
        urn.art = _add(urn.art, dart);
        ilk.Art = _add(ilk.Art, dart);

        int dtab = _mul(ilk.rate, dart);
        uint tab = _mul(ilk.rate, urn.art);
        debt     = _add(debt, dtab);

        // either debt has decreased, or debt ceilings are not exceeded
        require(either(dart <= 0, both(_mul(ilk.Art, ilk.rate) <= ilk.line, debt <= Line)), "Vat/ceiling-exceeded");
        // urn is either less risky than before, or it is safe
        require(either(both(dart <= 0, dink >= 0), tab <= _mul(urn.ink, ilk.spot)), "Vat/not-safe");

        // urn is either more safe, or the owner consents
        require(either(both(dart <= 0, dink >= 0), wish(u, msg.sender)), "Vat/not-allowed-u");
        // collateral src consents
        require(either(dink <= 0, wish(v, msg.sender)), "Vat/not-allowed-v");
        // debt dst consents
        require(either(dart >= 0, wish(w, msg.sender)), "Vat/not-allowed-w");

        // urn has no debt, or a non-dusty amount
        require(either(urn.art == 0, tab >= ilk.dust), "Vat/dust");

        gem[i][v] = _sub(gem[i][v], dink);
        dai[w]    = _add(dai[w],    dtab);

        urns[i][u] = urn;
        ilks[i]    = ilk;
    }
    // --- CDP Fungibility ---
    function fork(bytes32 ilk, address src, address dst, int dink, int dart) external note {
        Urn storage u = urns[ilk][src];
        Urn storage v = urns[ilk][dst];
        Ilk storage i = ilks[ilk];

        u.ink = _sub(u.ink, dink);
        u.art = _sub(u.art, dart);
        v.ink = _add(v.ink, dink);
        v.art = _add(v.art, dart);

        uint utab = _mul(u.art, i.rate);
        uint vtab = _mul(v.art, i.rate);

        // both sides consent
        require(both(wish(src, msg.sender), wish(dst, msg.sender)), "Vat/not-allowed");

        // both sides safe
        require(utab <= _mul(u.ink, i.spot), "Vat/not-safe-src");
        require(vtab <= _mul(v.ink, i.spot), "Vat/not-safe-dst");

        // both sides non-dusty
        require(either(utab >= i.dust, u.art == 0), "Vat/dust-src");
        require(either(vtab >= i.dust, v.art == 0), "Vat/dust-dst");
    }
    // --- CDP Confiscation ---
    function grab(bytes32 i, address u, address v, address w, int dink, int dart) external note auth {
        Urn storage urn = urns[i][u];
        Ilk storage ilk = ilks[i];

        urn.ink = _add(urn.ink, dink);
        urn.art = _add(urn.art, dart);
        ilk.Art = _add(ilk.Art, dart);

        int dtab = _mul(ilk.rate, dart);

        gem[i][v] = _sub(gem[i][v], dink);
        sin[w]    = _sub(sin[w],    dtab);
        vice      = _sub(vice,      dtab);
    }

    // --- Settlement ---
    function heal(uint rad) external note {
        address u = msg.sender;
        sin[u] = _sub(sin[u], rad);
        dai[u] = _sub(dai[u], rad);
        vice   = _sub(vice,   rad);
        debt   = _sub(debt,   rad);
    }
    function suck(address u, address v, uint rad) external note auth {
        sin[u] = _add(sin[u], rad);
        dai[v] = _add(dai[v], rad);
        vice   = _add(vice,   rad);
        debt   = _add(debt,   rad);
    }

    // --- Rates ---
    function fold(bytes32 i, address u, int rate) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Vat/not-live");
        Ilk storage ilk = ilks[i];
        ilk.rate = _add(ilk.rate, rate);
        int rad  = _mul(ilk.Art, rate);
        dai[u]   = _add(dai[u], rad);
        debt     = _add(debt,   rad);
    }
}

contract Jug is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Jug/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Ilk {
        uint256 duty;  // Collateral-specific, per-second stability fee contribution [ray]
        uint256  rho;  // Time of last drip [unix epoch time]
    }

    mapping (bytes32 => Ilk) public ilks;
    Vat                      public vat;   // CDP Engine
    address                  public vow;   // Debt Engine
    uint256                  public base;  // Global, per-second stability fee contribution [ray]

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    function rpow(uint x, uint n, uint b) internal pure returns (uint z) {
      assembly {
        switch x case 0 {switch n case 0 {z := b} default {z := 0}}
        default {
          switch mod(n, 2) case 0 { z := b } default { z := x }
          let half := div(b, 2)  // for rounding.
          for { n := div(n, 2) } n { n := div(n,2) } {
            let xx := mul(x, x)
            if iszero(eq(div(xx, x), x)) { revert(0,0) }
            let xxRound := add(xx, half)
            if lt(xxRound, xx) { revert(0,0) }
            x := div(xxRound, b)
            if mod(n,2) {
              let zx := mul(z, x)
              if and(iszero(iszero(x)), iszero(eq(div(zx, x), z))) { revert(0,0) }
              let zxRound := add(zx, half)
              if lt(zxRound, zx) { revert(0,0) }
              z := div(zxRound, b)
            }
          }
        }
      }
    }
    uint256 constant ONE = 10 ** 27;
    function _add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = x + y;
        require(z >= x);
    }
    function diff(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (int z) {
        z = int(x) - int(y);
        require(int(x) >= 0 && int(y) >= 0);
    }
    function rmul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = x * y;
        require(y == 0 || z / y == x);
        z = z / ONE;
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function init(bytes32 ilk) external note auth {
        Ilk storage i = ilks[ilk];
        require(i.duty == 0, "Jug/ilk-already-init");
        i.duty = ONE;
        i.rho  = now;
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        require(now == ilks[ilk].rho, "Jug/rho-not-updated");
        if (what == "duty") ilks[ilk].duty = data;
        else revert("Jug/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        if (what == "base") base = data;
        else revert("Jug/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external note auth {
        if (what == "vow") vow = data;
        else revert("Jug/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // --- Stability Fee Collection ---
    function drip(bytes32 ilk) external note returns (uint rate) {
        require(now >= ilks[ilk].rho, "Jug/invalid-now");
        (, uint prev,,,) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        rate = rmul(rpow(_add(base, ilks[ilk].duty), now - ilks[ilk].rho, ONE), prev);
        vat.fold(ilk, vow, diff(rate, prev));
        ilks[ilk].rho = now;
    }
}

interface PipLike {
    function peek() external view returns (bytes32, bool);
    function read() external view returns (bytes32);
}

contract Spotter is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address guy) external note auth { wards[guy] = 1;  }
    function deny(address guy) external note auth { wards[guy] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Spotter/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Ilk {
        PipLike pip;  // Price Feed
        uint256 mat;  // Liquidation ratio [ray]
    }

    mapping (bytes32 => Ilk) public ilks;

    Vat     public vat;  // CDP Engine
    uint256 public par;  // ref per dai [ray]

    uint256 public live;

    // --- Events ---
    event Poke(
      bytes32 ilk,
      bytes32 val,  // [wad]
      uint256 spot  // [ray]
    );

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        par = ONE;
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint constant ONE = 10 ** 27;

    function mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }
    function rdiv(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = mul(x, ONE) / y;
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, address pip_) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Spotter/not-live");
        if (what == "pip") ilks[ilk].pip = PipLike(pip_);
        else revert("Spotter/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Spotter/not-live");
        if (what == "par") par = data;
        else revert("Spotter/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Spotter/not-live");
        if (what == "mat") ilks[ilk].mat = data;
        else revert("Spotter/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // --- Update value ---
    function poke(bytes32 ilk) external {
        (bytes32 val, bool has) = ilks[ilk].pip.peek();
        uint256 spot = has ? rdiv(rdiv(mul(uint(val), 10 ** 9), par), ilks[ilk].mat) : 0;
        vat.file(ilk, "spot", spot);
        emit Poke(ilk, val, spot);
    }

    function cage() external note auth {
        live = 0;
    }
}

/*
   "Savings Dai" is obtained when Dai is deposited into
   this contract. Each "Savings Dai" accrues Dai interest
   at the "Dai Savings Rate".

   This contract does not implement a user tradeable token
   and is intended to be used with adapters.

         --- `save` your `dai` in the `pot` ---

   - `dsr`: the Dai Savings Rate
   - `pie`: user balance of Savings Dai

   - `join`: start saving some dai
   - `exit`: remove some dai
   - `drip`: perform rate collection

*/

contract Pot is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address guy) external note auth { wards[guy] = 1; }
    function deny(address guy) external note auth { wards[guy] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Pot/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public pie;  // Normalised Savings Dai [wad]

    uint256 public Pie;   // Total Normalised Savings Dai  [wad]
    uint256 public dsr;   // The Dai Savings Rate          [ray]
    uint256 public chi;   // The Rate Accumulator          [ray]

    Vat     public vat;   // CDP Engine
    address public vow;   // Debt Engine
    uint256 public rho;   // Time of last drip     [unix epoch time]

    uint256 public live;  // Active Flag

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        dsr = ONE;
        chi = ONE;
        rho = now;
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant ONE = 10 ** 27;
    function rpow(uint x, uint n, uint base) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        assembly {
            switch x case 0 {switch n case 0 {z := base} default {z := 0}}
            default {
                switch mod(n, 2) case 0 { z := base } default { z := x }
                let half := div(base, 2)  // for rounding.
                for { n := div(n, 2) } n { n := div(n,2) } {
                    let xx := mul(x, x)
                    if iszero(eq(div(xx, x), x)) { revert(0,0) }
                    let xxRound := add(xx, half)
                    if lt(xxRound, xx) { revert(0,0) }
                    x := div(xxRound, base)
                    if mod(n,2) {
                        let zx := mul(z, x)
                        if and(iszero(iszero(x)), iszero(eq(div(zx, x), z))) { revert(0,0) }
                        let zxRound := add(zx, half)
                        if lt(zxRound, zx) { revert(0,0) }
                        z := div(zxRound, base)
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    function rmul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        z = _mul(x, y) / ONE;
    }

    function _add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }

    function _sub(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }

    function _mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Pot/not-live");
        require(now == rho, "Pot/rho-not-updated");
        if (what == "dsr") dsr = data;
        else revert("Pot/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    function file(bytes32 what, address addr) external note auth {
        if (what == "vow") vow = addr;
        else revert("Pot/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    function cage() external note auth {
        live = 0;
        dsr = ONE;
    }

    // --- Savings Rate Accumulation ---
    function drip() external note returns (uint tmp) {
        require(now >= rho, "Pot/invalid-now");
        tmp = rmul(rpow(dsr, now - rho, ONE), chi);
        uint chi_ = _sub(tmp, chi);
        chi = tmp;
        rho = now;
        vat.suck(address(vow), address(this), _mul(Pie, chi_));
    }

    // --- Savings Dai Management ---
    function join(uint wad) external note {
        require(now == rho, "Pot/rho-not-updated");
        pie[msg.sender] = _add(pie[msg.sender], wad);
        Pie             = _add(Pie,             wad);
        vat.move(msg.sender, address(this), _mul(chi, wad));
    }

    function exit(uint wad) external note {
        pie[msg.sender] = _sub(pie[msg.sender], wad);
        Pie             = _sub(Pie,             wad);
        vat.move(address(this), msg.sender, _mul(chi, wad));
    }
}

contract Dai is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address guy) external note auth { wards[guy] = 1; }
    function deny(address guy) external note auth { wards[guy] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Dai/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- ERC20 Data ---
    string  public constant name     = "Mor Stablecoin";
    string  public constant symbol   = "MOR";
    string  public constant version  = "1";
    uint8   public constant decimals = 18;
    uint256 public totalSupply;

    mapping (address => uint)                      public balanceOf;
    mapping (address => mapping (address => uint)) public allowance;
    mapping (address => uint)                      public nonces;

    event Approval(address indexed src, address indexed guy, uint wad);
    event Transfer(address indexed src, address indexed dst, uint wad);

    // --- Math ---
    function add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function sub(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }

    // --- EIP712 niceties ---
    bytes32 public DOMAIN_SEPARATOR;
    // bytes32 public constant PERMIT_TYPEHASH = keccak256("Permit(address holder,address spender,uint256 nonce,uint256 expiry,bool allowed)");
    bytes32 public constant PERMIT_TYPEHASH = 0xea2aa0a1be11a07ed86d755c93467f4f82362b452371d1ba94d1715123511acb;

    constructor(uint256 chainId_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        DOMAIN_SEPARATOR = keccak256(abi.encode(
            keccak256("EIP712Domain(string name,string version,uint256 chainId,address verifyingContract)"),
            keccak256(bytes(name)),
            keccak256(bytes(version)),
            chainId_,
            address(this)
        ));
    }

    // --- Token ---
    function transfer(address dst, uint wad) external returns (bool) {
        return transferFrom(msg.sender, dst, wad);
    }
    function transferFrom(address src, address dst, uint wad)
        public returns (bool)
    {
        require(balanceOf[src] >= wad, "Dai/insufficient-balance");
        if (src != msg.sender && allowance[src][msg.sender] != uint(-1)) {
            require(allowance[src][msg.sender] >= wad, "Dai/insufficient-allowance");
            allowance[src][msg.sender] = sub(allowance[src][msg.sender], wad);
        }
        balanceOf[src] = sub(balanceOf[src], wad);
        balanceOf[dst] = add(balanceOf[dst], wad);
        emit Transfer(src, dst, wad);
        return true;
    }
    function mint(address usr, uint wad) external auth {
        balanceOf[usr] = add(balanceOf[usr], wad);
        totalSupply    = add(totalSupply, wad);
        emit Transfer(address(0), usr, wad);
    }
    function burn(address usr, uint wad) external {
        require(balanceOf[usr] >= wad, "Dai/insufficient-balance");
        if (usr != msg.sender && allowance[usr][msg.sender] != uint(-1)) {
            require(allowance[usr][msg.sender] >= wad, "Dai/insufficient-allowance");
            allowance[usr][msg.sender] = sub(allowance[usr][msg.sender], wad);
        }
        balanceOf[usr] = sub(balanceOf[usr], wad);
        totalSupply    = sub(totalSupply, wad);
        emit Transfer(usr, address(0), wad);
    }
    function approve(address usr, uint wad) external returns (bool) {
        allowance[msg.sender][usr] = wad;
        emit Approval(msg.sender, usr, wad);
        return true;
    }

    // --- Alias ---
    /*
    function push(address usr, uint wad) external {
        transferFrom(msg.sender, usr, wad);
    }
    function pull(address usr, uint wad) external {
        transferFrom(usr, msg.sender, wad);
    }
    function move(address src, address dst, uint wad) external {
        transferFrom(src, dst, wad);
    }
    */

    // --- Approve by signature ---
    function permit(address holder, address spender, uint256 nonce, uint256 expiry,
                    bool allowed, uint8 v, bytes32 r, bytes32 s) external
    {
        bytes32 digest =
            keccak256(abi.encodePacked(
                "\x19\x01",
                DOMAIN_SEPARATOR,
                keccak256(abi.encode(PERMIT_TYPEHASH,
                                     holder,
                                     spender,
                                     nonce,
                                     expiry,
                                     allowed))
        ));

        require(holder != address(0), "Dai/invalid-address-0");
        require(holder == ecrecover(digest, v, r, s), "Dai/invalid-permit");
        require(expiry == 0 || now <= expiry, "Dai/permit-expired");
        require(nonce == nonces[holder]++, "Dai/invalid-nonce");
        uint wad = allowed ? uint(-1) : 0;
        allowance[holder][spender] = wad;
        emit Approval(holder, spender, wad);
    }
}

/*
    Here we provide *adapters* to connect the Vat to arbitrary external
    token implementations, creating a bounded context for the Vat. The
    adapters here are provided as working examples:

      - `GemJoin`: For well behaved ERC20 tokens, with simple transfer
                   semantics.

      - `ETHJoin`: For native Ether.

      - `DaiJoin`: For connecting internal Dai balances to an external
                   `DSToken` implementation.

    In practice, adapter implementations will be varied and specific to
    individual collateral types, accounting for different transfer
    semantics and token standards.

    Adapters need to implement two basic methods:

      - `join`: enter collateral into the system
      - `exit`: remove collateral from the system

*/

contract GemJoin is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "GemJoin/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    Vat     public vat;   // CDP Engine
    bytes32 public ilk;   // Collateral Type
    DSToken public gem;
    uint    public dec;
    uint    public live;  // Active Flag

    constructor(address vat_, bytes32 ilk_, address gem_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        live = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        ilk = ilk_;
        gem = DSToken(gem_);
        dec = gem.decimals();
    }
    function cage() external note auth {
        live = 0;
    }
    function join(address usr, uint wad) external note {
        require(live == 1, "GemJoin/not-live");
        require(int(wad) >= 0, "GemJoin/overflow");
        vat.slip(ilk, usr, int(wad));
        require(gem.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), wad), "GemJoin/failed-transfer");
    }
    function exit(address usr, uint wad) external note {
        require(wad <= 2 ** 255, "GemJoin/overflow");
        vat.slip(ilk, msg.sender, -int(wad));
        require(gem.transfer(usr, wad), "GemJoin/failed-transfer");
    }
}

contract DaiJoin is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "DaiJoin/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    Vat     public vat;  // CDP Engine
    Dai     public dai;  // Stablecoin Token
    uint    public live; // Active Flag

    constructor(address vat_, address dai_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        live = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        dai = Dai(dai_);
    }
    function cage() external note auth {
        live = 0;
    }
    uint constant ONE = 10 ** 27;
    function mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }
    function join(address usr, uint wad) external note {
        vat.move(address(this), usr, mul(ONE, wad));
        dai.burn(msg.sender, wad);
    }
    function exit(address usr, uint wad) external note {
        require(live == 1, "DaiJoin/not-live");
        vat.move(msg.sender, address(this), mul(ONE, wad));
        dai.mint(usr, wad);
    }
}

/*
   This thing lets you sell some dai in return for gems.

 - `lot` dai in return for bid
 - `bid` gems paid
 - `ttl` single bid lifetime
 - `beg` minimum bid increase
 - `end` max auction duration
*/

contract Flapper is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Flapper/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Bid {
        uint256 bid;  // gems paid               [wad]
        uint256 lot;  // dai in return for bid   [rad]
        address guy;  // high bidder
        uint48  tic;  // bid expiry time         [unix epoch time]
        uint48  end;  // auction expiry time     [unix epoch time]
    }

    mapping (uint => Bid) public bids;

    Vat      public   vat;  // CDP Engine
    DSToken  public   gem;

    uint256  constant ONE = 1.00E18;
    uint256  public   beg = 1.05E18;  // 5% minimum bid increase
    uint48   public   ttl = 3 hours;  // 3 hours bid duration         [seconds]
    uint48   public   tau = 2 days;   // 2 days total auction length  [seconds]
    uint256  public kicks = 0;
    uint256  public live;  // Active Flag

    // --- Events ---
    event Kick(
      uint256 id,
      uint256 lot,
      uint256 bid
    );

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_, address gem_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        gem = DSToken(gem_);
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    function add(uint48 x, uint48 y) internal pure returns (uint48 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }

    // --- Admin ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        if (what == "beg") beg = data;
        else if (what == "ttl") ttl = uint48(data);
        else if (what == "tau") tau = uint48(data);
        else revert("Flapper/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // --- Auction ---
    function kick(uint lot, uint bid) external auth returns (uint id) {
        require(live == 1, "Flapper/not-live");
        require(kicks < uint(-1), "Flapper/overflow");
        id = ++kicks;

        bids[id].bid = bid;
        bids[id].lot = lot;
        bids[id].guy = msg.sender;  // configurable??
        bids[id].end = add(uint48(now), tau);

        vat.move(msg.sender, address(this), lot);

        emit Kick(id, lot, bid);
    }
    function tick(uint id) external note {
        require(bids[id].end < now, "Flapper/not-finished");
        require(bids[id].tic == 0, "Flapper/bid-already-placed");
        bids[id].end = add(uint48(now), tau);
    }
    function tend(uint id, uint lot, uint bid) external note {
        require(live == 1, "Flapper/not-live");
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flapper/guy-not-set");
        require(bids[id].tic > now || bids[id].tic == 0, "Flapper/already-finished-tic");
        require(bids[id].end > now, "Flapper/already-finished-end");

        require(lot == bids[id].lot, "Flapper/lot-not-matching");
        require(bid >  bids[id].bid, "Flapper/bid-not-higher");
        require(mul(bid, ONE) >= mul(beg, bids[id].bid), "Flapper/insufficient-increase");

        if (msg.sender != bids[id].guy) {
            gem.transferFrom(msg.sender, bids[id].guy, bids[id].bid);
            bids[id].guy = msg.sender;
        }
        gem.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), bid - bids[id].bid);

        bids[id].bid = bid;
        bids[id].tic = add(uint48(now), ttl);
    }
    function deal(uint id) external note {
        require(live == 1, "Flapper/not-live");
        require(bids[id].tic != 0 && (bids[id].tic < now || bids[id].end < now), "Flapper/not-finished");
        vat.move(address(this), bids[id].guy, bids[id].lot);
        uint256 bid = bids[id].bid;
        try gem.burn(bid) {} catch { gem.transfer(address(0xdead), bid); }
        delete bids[id];
    }

    function cage(uint rad) external note auth {
       live = 0;
       vat.move(address(this), msg.sender, rad);
    }
    function yank(uint id) external note {
        require(live == 0, "Flapper/still-live");
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flapper/guy-not-set");
        gem.transferFrom(address(this), bids[id].guy, bids[id].bid);
        delete bids[id];
    }
}

/*
   This thing creates gems on demand in return for dai.

 - `lot` gems in return for bid
 - `bid` dai paid
 - `gal` receives dai income
 - `ttl` single bid lifetime
 - `beg` minimum bid increase
 - `end` max auction duration
*/

contract Flopper is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Flopper/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Bid {
        uint256 bid;  // dai paid                [rad]
        uint256 lot;  // gems in return for bid  [wad]
        address guy;  // high bidder
        uint48  tic;  // bid expiry time         [unix epoch time]
        uint48  end;  // auction expiry time     [unix epoch time]
    }

    mapping (uint => Bid) public bids;

    Vat      public   vat;  // CDP Engine
    DSToken  public   gem;

    uint256  constant ONE = 1.00E18;
    uint256  public   beg = 1.05E18;  // 5% minimum bid increase
    uint256  public   pad = 1.50E18;  // 50% lot increase for tick
    uint48   public   ttl = 3 hours;  // 3 hours bid lifetime         [seconds]
    uint48   public   tau = 2 days;   // 2 days total auction length  [seconds]
    uint256  public kicks = 0;
    uint256  public live;             // Active Flag
    address  public vow;              // not used until shutdown

    // --- Events ---
    event Kick(
      uint256 id,
      uint256 lot,
      uint256 bid,
      address indexed gal
    );

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_, address gem_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        gem = DSToken(gem_);
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    function add(uint48 x, uint48 y) internal pure returns (uint48 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function mul(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }
    function min(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        if (x > y) { z = y; } else { z = x; }
    }

    // --- Admin ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        if (what == "beg") beg = data;
        else if (what == "pad") pad = data;
        else if (what == "ttl") ttl = uint48(data);
        else if (what == "tau") tau = uint48(data);
        else revert("Flopper/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // --- Auction ---
    function kick(address gal, uint lot, uint bid) external auth returns (uint id) {
        require(live == 1, "Flopper/not-live");
        require(kicks < uint(-1), "Flopper/overflow");
        id = ++kicks;

        bids[id].bid = bid;
        bids[id].lot = lot;
        bids[id].guy = gal;
        bids[id].end = add(uint48(now), tau);

        emit Kick(id, lot, bid, gal);
    }
    function tick(uint id) external note {
        require(bids[id].end < now, "Flopper/not-finished");
        require(bids[id].tic == 0, "Flopper/bid-already-placed");
        bids[id].lot = mul(pad, bids[id].lot) / ONE;
        bids[id].end = add(uint48(now), tau);
    }
    function dent(uint id, uint lot, uint bid) external note {
        require(live == 1, "Flopper/not-live");
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flopper/guy-not-set");
        require(bids[id].tic > now || bids[id].tic == 0, "Flopper/already-finished-tic");
        require(bids[id].end > now, "Flopper/already-finished-end");

        require(bid == bids[id].bid, "Flopper/not-matching-bid");
        require(lot <  bids[id].lot, "Flopper/lot-not-lower");
        require(mul(beg, lot) <= mul(bids[id].lot, ONE), "Flopper/insufficient-decrease");

        if (msg.sender != bids[id].guy) {
            vat.move(msg.sender, bids[id].guy, bid);

            // on first dent, clear as much Ash as possible
            if (bids[id].tic == 0) {
                uint Ash = Vow(bids[id].guy).Ash();
                Vow(bids[id].guy).kiss(min(bid, Ash));
            }

            bids[id].guy = msg.sender;
        }

        bids[id].lot = lot;
        bids[id].tic = add(uint48(now), ttl);
    }
    function deal(uint id) external note {
        require(live == 1, "Flopper/not-live");
        require(bids[id].tic != 0 && (bids[id].tic < now || bids[id].end < now), "Flopper/not-finished");
        gem.mint(bids[id].guy, bids[id].lot); // will fail if mint is unavailable
        delete bids[id];
    }

    // --- Shutdown ---
    function cage() external note auth {
       live = 0;
       vow = msg.sender;
    }
    function yank(uint id) external note {
        require(live == 0, "Flopper/still-live");
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flopper/guy-not-set");
        vat.suck(vow, bids[id].guy, bids[id].bid);
        delete bids[id];
    }
}

contract Vow is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { require(live == 1, "Vow/not-live"); wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Vow/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    Vat      public vat;       // CDP Engine
    Flapper  public flapper;   // Surplus Auction House
    Flopper  public flopper;   // Debt Auction House

    mapping (uint256 => uint256) public sin;  // debt queue
    uint256 public Sin;   // Queued debt            [rad]
    uint256 public Ash;   // On-auction debt        [rad]

    uint256 public wait;  // Flop delay             [seconds]
    uint256 public dump;  // Flop initial lot size  [wad]
    uint256 public sump;  // Flop fixed bid size    [rad]

    uint256 public bump;  // Flap fixed lot size    [rad]
    uint256 public hump;  // Surplus buffer         [rad]

    uint256 public live;  // Active Flag

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_, address flapper_, address flopper_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat     = Vat(vat_);
        flapper = Flapper(flapper_);
        flopper = Flopper(flopper_);
        vat.hope(flapper_);
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    function add(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function sub(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }
    function min(uint x, uint y) internal pure returns (uint z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint data) external note auth {
        if (what == "wait") wait = data;
        else if (what == "bump") bump = data;
        else if (what == "sump") sump = data;
        else if (what == "dump") dump = data;
        else if (what == "hump") hump = data;
        else revert("Vow/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external note auth {
        if (what == "flapper") {
            vat.nope(address(flapper));
            flapper = Flapper(data);
            vat.hope(data);
        }
        else if (what == "flopper") flopper = Flopper(data);
        else revert("Vow/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // Push to debt-queue
    function fess(uint tab) external note auth {
        sin[now] = add(sin[now], tab);
        Sin = add(Sin, tab);
    }
    // Pop from debt-queue
    function flog(uint era) external note {
        require(add(era, wait) <= now, "Vow/wait-not-finished");
        Sin = sub(Sin, sin[era]);
        sin[era] = 0;
    }

    // Debt settlement
    function heal(uint rad) external note {
        require(rad <= vat.dai(address(this)), "Vow/insufficient-surplus");
        require(rad <= sub(sub(vat.sin(address(this)), Sin), Ash), "Vow/insufficient-debt");
        vat.heal(rad);
    }
    function kiss(uint rad) external note {
        require(rad <= Ash, "Vow/not-enough-ash");
        require(rad <= vat.dai(address(this)), "Vow/insufficient-surplus");
        Ash = sub(Ash, rad);
        vat.heal(rad);
    }

    // Debt auction
    function flop() external note returns (uint id) {
        require(sump <= sub(sub(vat.sin(address(this)), Sin), Ash), "Vow/insufficient-debt");
        require(vat.dai(address(this)) == 0, "Vow/surplus-not-zero");
        Ash = add(Ash, sump);
        id = flopper.kick(address(this), dump, sump);
    }
    // Surplus auction
    function flap() external note returns (uint id) {
        require(vat.dai(address(this)) >= add(add(vat.sin(address(this)), bump), hump), "Vow/insufficient-surplus");
        require(sub(sub(vat.sin(address(this)), Sin), Ash) == 0, "Vow/debt-not-zero");
        id = flapper.kick(bump, 0);
    }

    function cage() external note auth {
        require(live == 1, "Vow/not-live");
        live = 0;
        Sin = 0;
        Ash = 0;
        flapper.cage(vat.dai(address(flapper)));
        flopper.cage();
        vat.heal(min(vat.dai(address(this)), vat.sin(address(this))));
    }
}

interface Kicker {
    function kick(address urn, address gal, uint256 tab, uint256 lot, uint256 bid)
        external returns (uint256);
}

contract Cat is DSNote {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external note auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Cat/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Ilk {
        address flip;  // Liquidator
        uint256 chop;  // Liquidation Penalty  [wad]
        uint256 dunk;  // Liquidation Quantity [rad]
    }

    mapping (bytes32 => Ilk) public ilks;

    uint256 public live;   // Active Flag
    Vat     public vat;    // CDP Engine
    Vow     public vow;    // Debt Engine
    uint256 public box;    // Max Dai out for liquidation        [rad]
    uint256 public litter; // Balance of Dai out for liquidation [rad]

    // --- Events ---
    event Bite(
      bytes32 indexed ilk,
      address indexed urn,
      uint256 ink,
      uint256 art,
      uint256 tab,
      address flip,
      uint256 id
    );

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_) public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        live = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant WAD = 10 ** 18;

    function min(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        if (x > y) { z = y; } else { z = x; }
    }
    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function sub(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }
    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external note auth {
        if (what == "vow") vow = Vow(data);
        else revert("Cat/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external note auth {
        if (what == "box") box = data;
        else revert("Cat/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, uint256 data) external note auth {
        if (what == "chop") ilks[ilk].chop = data;
        else if (what == "dunk") ilks[ilk].dunk = data;
        else revert("Cat/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, address flip) external note auth {
        if (what == "flip") {
            vat.nope(ilks[ilk].flip);
            ilks[ilk].flip = flip;
            vat.hope(flip);
        }
        else revert("Cat/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // --- CDP Liquidation ---
    function bite(bytes32 ilk, address urn) external returns (uint256 id) {
        (,uint256 rate,uint256 spot,,uint256 dust) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        (uint256 ink, uint256 art) = vat.urns(ilk, urn);

        require(live == 1, "Cat/not-live");
        require(spot > 0 && mul(ink, spot) < mul(art, rate), "Cat/not-unsafe");

        Ilk memory milk = ilks[ilk];
        uint256 dart;
        {
            uint256 room = sub(box, litter);

            // test whether the remaining space in the litterbox is dusty
            require(litter < box && room >= dust, "Cat/liquidation-limit-hit");

            dart = min(art, mul(min(milk.dunk, room), WAD) / rate / milk.chop);
        }

        uint256 dink = min(ink, mul(ink, dart) / art);

        require(dart >  0      && dink >  0     , "Cat/null-auction");
        require(dart <= 2**255 && dink <= 2**255, "Cat/overflow"    );

        // This may leave the CDP in a dusty state
        vat.grab(
            ilk, urn, address(this), address(vow), -int256(dink), -int256(dart)
        );
        vow.fess(mul(dart, rate));

        { // Avoid stack too deep
            // This calcuation will overflow if dart*rate exceeds ~10^14,
            // i.e. the maximum dunk is roughly 100 trillion DAI.
            uint256 tab = mul(mul(dart, rate), milk.chop) / WAD;
            litter = add(litter, tab);

            id = Kicker(milk.flip).kick({
                urn: urn,
                gal: address(vow),
                tab: tab,
                lot: dink,
                bid: 0
            });
        }

        emit Bite(ilk, urn, dink, dart, mul(dart, rate), milk.flip, id);
    }

    function claw(uint256 rad) external note auth {
        litter = sub(litter, rad);
    }

    function cage() external note auth {
        live = 0;
    }
}

// FIXME: This contract was altered compared to the production version.
// It doesn't use LibNote anymore.
// New deployments of this contract will need to include custom events (TO DO).

/*
   This thing lets you flip some gems for a given amount of dai.
   Once the given amount of dai is raised, gems are forgone instead.

 - `lot` gems in return for bid
 - `tab` total dai wanted
 - `bid` dai paid
 - `gal` receives dai income
 - `usr` receives gem forgone
 - `ttl` single bid lifetime
 - `beg` minimum bid increase
 - `end` max auction duration
*/

contract Flipper {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Flipper/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Bid {
        uint256 bid;  // dai paid                 [rad]
        uint256 lot;  // gems in return for bid   [wad]
        address guy;  // high bidder
        uint48  tic;  // bid expiry time          [unix epoch time]
        uint48  end;  // auction expiry time      [unix epoch time]
        address usr;
        address gal;
        uint256 tab;  // total dai wanted         [rad]
    }

    mapping (uint256 => Bid) public bids;

    Vat     public   vat;            // CDP Engine
    bytes32 public   ilk;            // collateral type

    uint256 constant ONE = 1.00E18;
    uint256 public   beg = 1.05E18;  // 5% minimum bid increase
    uint48  public   ttl = 3 hours;  // 3 hours bid duration         [seconds]
    uint48  public   tau = 2 days;   // 2 days total auction length  [seconds]
    uint256 public kicks = 0;
    Cat     public   cat;            // cat liquidation module

    // --- Events ---
    event Kick(
      uint256 id,
      uint256 lot,
      uint256 bid,
      uint256 tab,
      address indexed usr,
      address indexed gal
    );

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_, address cat_, bytes32 ilk_) public {
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        cat = Cat(cat_);
        ilk = ilk_;
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
    }

    // --- Math ---
    function add(uint48 x, uint48 y) internal pure returns (uint48 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }

    // --- Admin ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        if (what == "beg") beg = data;
        else if (what == "ttl") ttl = uint48(data);
        else if (what == "tau") tau = uint48(data);
        else revert("Flipper/file-unrecognized-param");
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external auth {
        if (what == "cat") cat = Cat(data);
        else revert("Flipper/file-unrecognized-param");
    }

    // --- Auction ---
    function kick(address usr, address gal, uint256 tab, uint256 lot, uint256 bid)
        public auth returns (uint256 id)
    {
        require(kicks < uint256(-1), "Flipper/overflow");
        id = ++kicks;

        bids[id].bid = bid;
        bids[id].lot = lot;
        bids[id].guy = msg.sender;  // configurable??
        bids[id].end = add(uint48(now), tau);
        bids[id].usr = usr;
        bids[id].gal = gal;
        bids[id].tab = tab;

        vat.flux(ilk, msg.sender, address(this), lot);

        emit Kick(id, lot, bid, tab, usr, gal);
    }
    function tick(uint256 id) external {
        require(bids[id].end < now, "Flipper/not-finished");
        require(bids[id].tic == 0, "Flipper/bid-already-placed");
        bids[id].end = add(uint48(now), tau);
    }
    function tend(uint256 id, uint256 lot, uint256 bid) external {
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flipper/guy-not-set");
        require(bids[id].tic > now || bids[id].tic == 0, "Flipper/already-finished-tic");
        require(bids[id].end > now, "Flipper/already-finished-end");

        require(lot == bids[id].lot, "Flipper/lot-not-matching");
        require(bid <= bids[id].tab, "Flipper/higher-than-tab");
        require(bid >  bids[id].bid, "Flipper/bid-not-higher");
        require(mul(bid, ONE) >= mul(beg, bids[id].bid) || bid == bids[id].tab, "Flipper/insufficient-increase");

        if (msg.sender != bids[id].guy) {
            vat.move(msg.sender, bids[id].guy, bids[id].bid);
            bids[id].guy = msg.sender;
        }
        vat.move(msg.sender, bids[id].gal, bid - bids[id].bid);

        bids[id].bid = bid;
        bids[id].tic = add(uint48(now), ttl);
    }
    function dent(uint256 id, uint256 lot, uint256 bid) external {
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flipper/guy-not-set");
        require(bids[id].tic > now || bids[id].tic == 0, "Flipper/already-finished-tic");
        require(bids[id].end > now, "Flipper/already-finished-end");

        require(bid == bids[id].bid, "Flipper/not-matching-bid");
        require(bid == bids[id].tab, "Flipper/tend-not-finished");
        require(lot < bids[id].lot, "Flipper/lot-not-lower");
        require(mul(beg, lot) <= mul(bids[id].lot, ONE), "Flipper/insufficient-decrease");

        if (msg.sender != bids[id].guy) {
            vat.move(msg.sender, bids[id].guy, bid);
            bids[id].guy = msg.sender;
        }
        vat.flux(ilk, address(this), bids[id].usr, bids[id].lot - lot);

        bids[id].lot = lot;
        bids[id].tic = add(uint48(now), ttl);
    }
    function deal(uint256 id) external {
        require(bids[id].tic != 0 && (bids[id].tic < now || bids[id].end < now), "Flipper/not-finished");
        cat.claw(bids[id].tab);
        vat.flux(ilk, address(this), bids[id].guy, bids[id].lot);
        delete bids[id];
    }

    function yank(uint256 id) external auth {
        require(bids[id].guy != address(0), "Flipper/guy-not-set");
        require(bids[id].bid < bids[id].tab, "Flipper/already-dent-phase");
        cat.claw(bids[id].tab);
        vat.flux(ilk, address(this), msg.sender, bids[id].lot);
        vat.move(msg.sender, bids[id].guy, bids[id].bid);
        delete bids[id];
    }
}

interface Abacus {
    // 1st arg: initial price               [ray]
    // 2nd arg: seconds since auction start [seconds]
    // returns: current auction price       [ray]
    function price(uint256, uint256) external view returns (uint256);
}

contract LinearDecrease is Abacus {

    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; emit Rely(usr); }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; emit Deny(usr); }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "LinearDecrease/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    uint256 public tau;  // Seconds after auction start when the price reaches zero [seconds]

    // --- Events ---
    event Rely(address indexed usr);
    event Deny(address indexed usr);

    event File(bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);

    // --- Init ---
    constructor() public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        emit Rely(msg.sender);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        if (what ==  "tau") tau = data;
        else revert("LinearDecrease/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant RAY = 10 ** 27;
    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }
    function rmul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x * y;
        require(y == 0 || z / y == x);
        z = z / RAY;
    }

    // Price calculation when price is decreased linearly in proportion to time:
    // tau: The number of seconds after the start of the auction where the price will hit 0
    // top: Initial price
    // dur: current seconds since the start of the auction
    //
    // Returns y = top * ((tau - dur) / tau)
    //
    // Note the internal call to mul multiples by RAY, thereby ensuring that the rmul calculation
    // which utilizes top and tau (RAY values) is also a RAY value.
    function price(uint256 top, uint256 dur) override external view returns (uint256) {
        if (dur >= tau) return 0;
        return rmul(top, mul(tau - dur, RAY) / tau);
    }
}

contract StairstepExponentialDecrease is Abacus {

    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; emit Rely(usr); }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; emit Deny(usr); }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "StairstepExponentialDecrease/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    uint256 public step; // Length of time between price drops [seconds]
    uint256 public cut;  // Per-step multiplicative factor     [ray]

    // --- Events ---
    event Rely(address indexed usr);
    event Deny(address indexed usr);

    event File(bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);

    // --- Init ---
    // @notice: `cut` and `step` values must be correctly set for
    //     this contract to return a valid price
    constructor() public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        emit Rely(msg.sender);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        if      (what ==  "cut") require((cut = data) <= RAY, "StairstepExponentialDecrease/cut-gt-RAY");
        else if (what == "step") step = data;
        else revert("StairstepExponentialDecrease/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant RAY = 10 ** 27;
    function rmul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x * y;
        require(y == 0 || z / y == x);
        z = z / RAY;
    }
    // optimized version from dss PR #78
    function rpow(uint256 x, uint256 n, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            switch n case 0 { z := b }
            default {
                switch x case 0 { z := 0 }
                default {
                    switch mod(n, 2) case 0 { z := b } default { z := x }
                    let half := div(b, 2)  // for rounding.
                    for { n := div(n, 2) } n { n := div(n,2) } {
                        let xx := mul(x, x)
                        if shr(128, x) { revert(0,0) }
                        let xxRound := add(xx, half)
                        if lt(xxRound, xx) { revert(0,0) }
                        x := div(xxRound, b)
                        if mod(n,2) {
                            let zx := mul(z, x)
                            if and(iszero(iszero(x)), iszero(eq(div(zx, x), z))) { revert(0,0) }
                            let zxRound := add(zx, half)
                            if lt(zxRound, zx) { revert(0,0) }
                            z := div(zxRound, b)
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    // top: initial price
    // dur: seconds since the auction has started
    // step: seconds between a price drop
    // cut: cut encodes the percentage to decrease per step.
    //   For efficiency, the values is set as (1 - (% value / 100)) * RAY
    //   So, for a 1% decrease per step, cut would be (1 - 0.01) * RAY
    //
    // returns: top * (cut ^ dur)
    //
    //
    function price(uint256 top, uint256 dur) override external view returns (uint256) {
        return rmul(top, rpow(cut, dur / step, RAY));
    }
}

// While an equivalent function can be obtained by setting step = 1 in StairstepExponentialDecrease,
// this continous (i.e. per-second) exponential decrease has be implemented as it is more gas-efficient
// than using the stairstep version with step = 1 (primarily due to 1 fewer SLOAD per price calculation).
contract ExponentialDecrease is Abacus {

    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; emit Rely(usr); }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; emit Deny(usr); }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "ExponentialDecrease/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    uint256 public cut;  // Per-second multiplicative factor [ray]

    // --- Events ---
    event Rely(address indexed usr);
    event Deny(address indexed usr);

    event File(bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);

    // --- Init ---
    // @notice: `cut` value must be correctly set for
    //     this contract to return a valid price
    constructor() public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        emit Rely(msg.sender);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        if      (what ==  "cut") require((cut = data) <= RAY, "ExponentialDecrease/cut-gt-RAY");
        else revert("ExponentialDecrease/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant RAY = 10 ** 27;
    function rmul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x * y;
        require(y == 0 || z / y == x);
        z = z / RAY;
    }
    // optimized version from dss PR #78
    function rpow(uint256 x, uint256 n, uint256 b) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        assembly {
            switch n case 0 { z := b }
            default {
                switch x case 0 { z := 0 }
                default {
                    switch mod(n, 2) case 0 { z := b } default { z := x }
                    let half := div(b, 2)  // for rounding.
                    for { n := div(n, 2) } n { n := div(n,2) } {
                        let xx := mul(x, x)
                        if shr(128, x) { revert(0,0) }
                        let xxRound := add(xx, half)
                        if lt(xxRound, xx) { revert(0,0) }
                        x := div(xxRound, b)
                        if mod(n,2) {
                            let zx := mul(z, x)
                            if and(iszero(iszero(x)), iszero(eq(div(zx, x), z))) { revert(0,0) }
                            let zxRound := add(zx, half)
                            if lt(zxRound, zx) { revert(0,0) }
                            z := div(zxRound, b)
                        }
                    }
                }
            }
        }
    }

    // top: initial price
    // dur: seconds since the auction has started
    // cut: cut encodes the percentage to decrease per second.
    //   For efficiency, the values is set as (1 - (% value / 100)) * RAY
    //   So, for a 1% decrease per second, cut would be (1 - 0.01) * RAY
    //
    // returns: top * (cut ^ dur)
    //
    function price(uint256 top, uint256 dur) override external view returns (uint256) {
        return rmul(top, rpow(cut, dur, RAY));
    }
}

interface ClipperCallee {
    function clipperCall(address, uint256, uint256, bytes calldata) external;
}

contract Clipper {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; emit Rely(usr); }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; emit Deny(usr); }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Clipper/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    bytes32  immutable public ilk;   // Collateral type of this Clipper
    Vat      immutable public vat;   // Core CDP Engine

    Dog         public dog;      // Liquidation module
    address     public vow;      // Recipient of dai raised in auctions
    Spotter     public spotter;  // Collateral price module
    Abacus      public calc;     // Current price calculator

    uint256 public buf;    // Multiplicative factor to increase starting price                  [ray]
    uint256 public tail;   // Time elapsed before auction reset                                 [seconds]
    uint256 public cusp;   // Percentage drop before auction reset                              [ray]
    uint64  public chip;   // Percentage of tab to suck from vow to incentivize keepers         [wad]
    uint192 public tip;    // Flat fee to suck from vow to incentivize keepers                  [rad]
    uint256 public chost;  // Cache the ilk dust times the ilk chop to prevent excessive SLOADs [rad]

    uint256   public kicks;   // Total auctions
    uint256[] public active;  // Array of active auction ids

    struct Sale {
        uint256 pos;  // Index in active array
        uint256 tab;  // Dai to raise       [rad]
        uint256 lot;  // collateral to sell [wad]
        address usr;  // Liquidated CDP
        uint96  tic;  // Auction start time
        uint256 top;  // Starting price     [ray]
    }
    mapping(uint256 => Sale) public sales;

    uint256 internal locked;

    // Levels for circuit breaker
    // 0: no breaker
    // 1: no new kick()
    // 2: no new kick() or redo()
    // 3: no new kick(), redo(), or take()
    uint256 public stopped = 0;

    // --- Events ---
    event Rely(address indexed usr);
    event Deny(address indexed usr);

    event File(bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);
    event File(bytes32 indexed what, address data);

    event Kick(
        uint256 indexed id,
        uint256 top,
        uint256 tab,
        uint256 lot,
        address indexed usr,
        address indexed kpr,
        uint256 coin
    );
    event Take(
        uint256 indexed id,
        uint256 max,
        uint256 price,
        uint256 owe,
        uint256 tab,
        uint256 lot,
        address indexed usr
    );
    event Redo(
        uint256 indexed id,
        uint256 top,
        uint256 tab,
        uint256 lot,
        address indexed usr,
        address indexed kpr,
        uint256 coin
    );

    event Yank(uint256 id);

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_, address spotter_, address dog_, bytes32 ilk_) public {
        vat     = Vat(vat_);
        spotter = Spotter(spotter_);
        dog     = Dog(dog_);
        ilk     = ilk_;
        buf     = RAY;
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        emit Rely(msg.sender);
    }

    // --- Synchronization ---
    modifier lock {
        require(locked == 0, "Clipper/system-locked");
        locked = 1;
        _;
        locked = 0;
    }

    modifier isStopped(uint256 level) {
        require(stopped < level, "Clipper/stopped-incorrect");
        _;
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth lock {
        if      (what == "buf")         buf = data;
        else if (what == "tail")       tail = data;           // Time elapsed before auction reset
        else if (what == "cusp")       cusp = data;           // Percentage drop before auction reset
        else if (what == "chip")       chip = uint64(data);   // Percentage of tab to incentivize (max: 2^64 - 1 => 18.xxx WAD = 18xx%)
        else if (what == "tip")         tip = uint192(data);  // Flat fee to incentivize keepers (max: 2^192 - 1 => 6.277T RAD)
        else if (what == "stopped") stopped = data;           // Set breaker (0, 1, 2, or 3)
        else revert("Clipper/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external auth lock {
        if (what == "spotter") spotter = Spotter(data);
        else if (what == "dog")    dog = Dog(data);
        else if (what == "vow")    vow = data;
        else if (what == "calc")  calc = Abacus(data);
        else revert("Clipper/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant BLN = 10 **  9;
    uint256 constant WAD = 10 ** 18;
    uint256 constant RAY = 10 ** 27;

    function min(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function sub(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }
    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }
    function wmul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = mul(x, y) / WAD;
    }
    function rmul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = mul(x, y) / RAY;
    }
    function rdiv(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = mul(x, RAY) / y;
    }

    // --- Auction ---

    // get the price directly from the OSM
    // Could get this from rmul(Vat.ilks(ilk).spot, Spotter.mat()) instead, but
    // if mat has changed since the last poke, the resulting value will be
    // incorrect.
    function getFeedPrice() internal view returns (uint256 feedPrice) {
        (PipLike pip, ) = spotter.ilks(ilk);
        (bytes32 val, bool has) = pip.peek();
        require(has, "Clipper/invalid-price");
        feedPrice = rdiv(mul(uint256(val), BLN), spotter.par());
    }

    // start an auction
    // note: trusts the caller to transfer collateral to the contract
    // The starting price `top` is obtained as follows:
    //
    //     top = val * buf / par
    //
    // Where `val` is the collateral's unitary value in USD, `buf` is a
    // multiplicative factor to increase the starting price, and `par` is a
    // reference per DAI.
    function kick(
        uint256 tab,  // Debt                   [rad]
        uint256 lot,  // Collateral             [wad]
        address usr,  // Address that will receive any leftover collateral
        address kpr   // Address that will receive incentives
    ) external auth lock isStopped(1) returns (uint256 id) {
        // Input validation
        require(tab  >          0, "Clipper/zero-tab");
        require(lot  >          0, "Clipper/zero-lot");
        require(usr != address(0), "Clipper/zero-usr");
        id = ++kicks;
        require(id   >          0, "Clipper/overflow");

        active.push(id);

        sales[id].pos = active.length - 1;

        sales[id].tab = tab;
        sales[id].lot = lot;
        sales[id].usr = usr;
        sales[id].tic = uint96(block.timestamp);

        uint256 top;
        top = rmul(getFeedPrice(), buf);
        require(top > 0, "Clipper/zero-top-price");
        sales[id].top = top;

        // incentive to kick auction
        uint256 _tip  = tip;
        uint256 _chip = chip;
        uint256 coin;
        if (_tip > 0 || _chip > 0) {
            coin = add(_tip, wmul(tab, _chip));
            vat.suck(vow, kpr, coin);
        }

        emit Kick(id, top, tab, lot, usr, kpr, coin);
    }

    // Reset an auction
    // See `kick` above for an explanation of the computation of `top`.
    function redo(
        uint256 id,  // id of the auction to reset
        address kpr  // Address that will receive incentives
    ) external lock isStopped(2) {
        // Read auction data
        address usr = sales[id].usr;
        uint96  tic = sales[id].tic;
        uint256 top = sales[id].top;

        require(usr != address(0), "Clipper/not-running-auction");

        // Check that auction needs reset
        // and compute current price [ray]
        (bool done,) = status(tic, top);
        require(done, "Clipper/cannot-reset");

        uint256 tab   = sales[id].tab;
        uint256 lot   = sales[id].lot;
        sales[id].tic = uint96(block.timestamp);

        uint256 feedPrice = getFeedPrice();
        top = rmul(feedPrice, buf);
        require(top > 0, "Clipper/zero-top-price");
        sales[id].top = top;

        // incentive to redo auction
        uint256 _tip  = tip;
        uint256 _chip = chip;
        uint256 coin;
        if (_tip > 0 || _chip > 0) {
            uint256 _chost = chost;
            if (tab >= _chost && mul(lot, feedPrice) >= _chost) {
                coin = add(_tip, wmul(tab, _chip));
                vat.suck(vow, kpr, coin);
            }
        }

        emit Redo(id, top, tab, lot, usr, kpr, coin);
    }

    // Buy up to `amt` of collateral from the auction indexed by `id`.
    // 
    // Auctions will not collect more DAI than their assigned DAI target,`tab`;
    // thus, if `amt` would cost more DAI than `tab` at the current price, the
    // amount of collateral purchased will instead be just enough to collect `tab` DAI.
    //
    // To avoid partial purchases resulting in very small leftover auctions that will
    // never be cleared, any partial purchase must leave at least `Clipper.chost`
    // remaining DAI target. `chost` is an asynchronously updated value equal to
    // (Vat.dust * Dog.chop(ilk) / WAD) where the values are understood to be determined
    // by whatever they were when Clipper.upchost() was last called. Purchase amounts
    // will be minimally decreased when necessary to respect this limit; i.e., if the
    // specified `amt` would leave `tab < chost` but `tab > 0`, the amount actually
    // purchased will be such that `tab == chost`.
    //
    // If `tab <= chost`, partial purchases are no longer possible; that is, the remaining
    // collateral can only be purchased entirely, or not at all.
    function take(
        uint256 id,           // Auction id
        uint256 amt,          // Upper limit on amount of collateral to buy  [wad]
        uint256 max,          // Maximum acceptable price (DAI / collateral) [ray]
        address who,          // Receiver of collateral and external call address
        bytes calldata data   // Data to pass in external call; if length 0, no call is done
    ) external lock isStopped(3) {

        address usr = sales[id].usr;
        uint96  tic = sales[id].tic;

        require(usr != address(0), "Clipper/not-running-auction");

        uint256 price;
        {
            bool done;
            (done, price) = status(tic, sales[id].top);

            // Check that auction doesn't need reset
            require(!done, "Clipper/needs-reset");
        }

        // Ensure price is acceptable to buyer
        require(max >= price, "Clipper/too-expensive");

        uint256 lot = sales[id].lot;
        uint256 tab = sales[id].tab;
        uint256 owe;

        {
            // Purchase as much as possible, up to amt
            uint256 slice = min(lot, amt);  // slice <= lot

            // DAI needed to buy a slice of this sale
            owe = mul(slice, price);

            // Don't collect more than tab of DAI
            if (owe > tab) {
                // Total debt will be paid
                owe = tab;                  // owe' <= owe
                // Adjust slice
                slice = owe / price;        // slice' = owe' / price <= owe / price == slice <= lot
            } else if (owe < tab && slice < lot) {
                // If slice == lot => auction completed => dust doesn't matter
                uint256 _chost = chost;
                if (tab - owe < _chost) {    // safe as owe < tab
                    // If tab <= chost, buyers have to take the entire lot.
                    require(tab > _chost, "Clipper/no-partial-purchase");
                    // Adjust amount to pay
                    owe = tab - _chost;      // owe' <= owe
                    // Adjust slice
                    slice = owe / price;     // slice' = owe' / price < owe / price == slice < lot
                }
            }

            // Calculate remaining tab after operation
            tab = tab - owe;  // safe since owe <= tab
            // Calculate remaining lot after operation
            lot = lot - slice;

            // Send collateral to who
            vat.flux(ilk, address(this), who, slice);

            // Do external call (if data is defined) but to be
            // extremely careful we don't allow to do it to the two
            // contracts which the Clipper needs to be authorized
            Dog dog_ = dog;
            if (data.length > 0 && who != address(vat) && who != address(dog_)) {
                ClipperCallee(who).clipperCall(msg.sender, owe, slice, data);
            }

            // Get DAI from caller
            vat.move(msg.sender, vow, owe);

            // Removes Dai out for liquidation from accumulator
            dog_.digs(ilk, lot == 0 ? tab + owe : owe);
        }

        if (lot == 0) {
            _remove(id);
        } else if (tab == 0) {
            vat.flux(ilk, address(this), usr, lot);
            _remove(id);
        } else {
            sales[id].tab = tab;
            sales[id].lot = lot;
        }

        emit Take(id, max, price, owe, tab, lot, usr);
    }

    function _remove(uint256 id) internal {
        uint256 _move    = active[active.length - 1];
        if (id != _move) {
            uint256 _index   = sales[id].pos;
            active[_index]   = _move;
            sales[_move].pos = _index;
        }
        active.pop();
        delete sales[id];
    }

    // The number of active auctions
    function count() external view returns (uint256) {
        return active.length;
    }

    // Return the entire array of active auctions
    function list() external view returns (uint256[] memory) {
        return active;
    }

    // Externally returns boolean for if an auction needs a redo and also the current price
    function getStatus(uint256 id) external view returns (bool needsRedo, uint256 price, uint256 lot, uint256 tab) {
        // Read auction data
        address usr = sales[id].usr;
        uint96  tic = sales[id].tic;

        bool done;
        (done, price) = status(tic, sales[id].top);

        needsRedo = usr != address(0) && done;
        lot = sales[id].lot;
        tab = sales[id].tab;
    }

    // Internally returns boolean for if an auction needs a redo
    function status(uint96 tic, uint256 top) internal view returns (bool done, uint256 price) {
        price = calc.price(top, sub(block.timestamp, tic));
        done  = (sub(block.timestamp, tic) > tail || rdiv(price, top) < cusp);
    }

    // Public function to update the cached dust*chop value.
    function upchost() external {
        (,,,, uint256 _dust) = Vat(vat).ilks(ilk);
        chost = wmul(_dust, dog.chop(ilk));
    }

    // Cancel an auction during ES or via governance action.
    function yank(uint256 id) external auth lock {
        require(sales[id].usr != address(0), "Clipper/not-running-auction");
        dog.digs(ilk, sales[id].tab);
        vat.flux(ilk, address(this), msg.sender, sales[id].lot);
        _remove(id);
        emit Yank(id);
    }
}

contract Dog {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; emit Rely(usr); }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; emit Deny(usr); }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "Dog/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    struct Ilk {
        address clip;  // Liquidator
        uint256 chop;  // Liquidation Penalty                                          [wad]
        uint256 hole;  // Max DAI needed to cover debt+fees of active auctions per ilk [rad]
        uint256 dirt;  // Amt DAI needed to cover debt+fees of active auctions per ilk [rad]
    }

    Vat     immutable public vat;  // CDP Engine

    mapping (bytes32 => Ilk) public ilks;

    Vow     public vow;   // Debt Engine
    uint256 public live;  // Active Flag
    uint256 public Hole;  // Max DAI needed to cover debt+fees of active auctions [rad]
    uint256 public Dirt;  // Amt DAI needed to cover debt+fees of active auctions [rad]

    // --- Events ---
    event Rely(address indexed usr);
    event Deny(address indexed usr);

    event File(bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);
    event File(bytes32 indexed what, address data);
    event File(bytes32 indexed ilk, bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);
    event File(bytes32 indexed ilk, bytes32 indexed what, address clip);

    event Bark(
      bytes32 indexed ilk,
      address indexed urn,
      uint256 ink,
      uint256 art,
      uint256 due,
      address clip,
      uint256 indexed id
    );
    event Digs(bytes32 indexed ilk, uint256 rad);
    event Cage();

    // --- Init ---
    constructor(address vat_) public {
        vat = Vat(vat_);
        live = 1;
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        emit Rely(msg.sender);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant WAD = 10 ** 18;

    function min(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x + y) >= x);
    }
    function sub(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }
    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external auth {
        if (what == "vow") vow = Vow(data);
        else revert("Dog/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        if (what == "Hole") Hole = data;
        else revert("Dog/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        if (what == "chop") {
            require(data >= WAD, "Dog/file-chop-lt-WAD");
            ilks[ilk].chop = data;
        } else if (what == "hole") ilks[ilk].hole = data;
        else revert("Dog/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(ilk, what, data);
    }
    function file(bytes32 ilk, bytes32 what, address clip) external auth {
        if (what == "clip") {
            require(ilk == Clipper(clip).ilk(), "Dog/file-ilk-neq-clip.ilk");
            ilks[ilk].clip = clip;
        } else revert("Dog/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(ilk, what, clip);
    }

    function chop(bytes32 ilk) external view returns (uint256) {
        return ilks[ilk].chop;
    }

    // --- CDP Liquidation: all bark and no bite ---
    //
    // Liquidate a Vault and start a Dutch auction to sell its collateral for DAI.
    //
    // The third argument is the address that will receive the liquidation reward, if any.
    //
    // The entire Vault will be liquidated except when the target amount of DAI to be raised in
    // the resulting auction (debt of Vault + liquidation penalty) causes either Dirt to exceed
    // Hole or ilk.dirt to exceed ilk.hole by an economically significant amount. In that
    // case, a partial liquidation is performed to respect the global and per-ilk limits on
    // outstanding DAI target. The one exception is if the resulting auction would likely
    // have too little collateral to be interesting to Keepers (debt taken from Vault < ilk.dust),
    // in which case the function reverts. Please refer to the code and comments within if
    // more detail is desired.
    function bark(bytes32 ilk, address urn, address kpr) external returns (uint256 id) {
        require(live == 1, "Dog/not-live");

        (uint256 ink, uint256 art) = vat.urns(ilk, urn);
        Ilk memory milk = ilks[ilk];
        uint256 dart;
        uint256 rate;
        uint256 dust;
        {
            uint256 spot;
            (,rate, spot,, dust) = vat.ilks(ilk);
            require(spot > 0 && mul(ink, spot) < mul(art, rate), "Dog/not-unsafe");

            // Get the minimum value between:
            // 1) Remaining space in the general Hole
            // 2) Remaining space in the collateral hole
            require(Hole > Dirt && milk.hole > milk.dirt, "Dog/liquidation-limit-hit");
            uint256 room = min(Hole - Dirt, milk.hole - milk.dirt);

            // uint256.max()/(RAD*WAD) = 115,792,089,237,316
            dart = min(art, mul(room, WAD) / rate / milk.chop);

            // Partial liquidation edge case logic
            if (art > dart) {
                if (mul(art - dart, rate) < dust) {

                    // If the leftover Vault would be dusty, just liquidate it entirely.
                    // This will result in at least one of dirt_i > hole_i or Dirt > Hole becoming true.
                    // The amount of excess will be bounded above by ceiling(dust_i * chop_i / WAD).
                    // This deviation is assumed to be small compared to both hole_i and Hole, so that
                    // the extra amount of target DAI over the limits intended is not of economic concern.
                    dart = art;
                } else {

                    // In a partial liquidation, the resulting auction should also be non-dusty.
                    require(mul(dart, rate) >= dust, "Dog/dusty-auction-from-partial-liquidation");
                }
            }
        }

        uint256 dink = mul(ink, dart) / art;

        require(dink > 0, "Dog/null-auction");
        require(dart <= 2**255 && dink <= 2**255, "Dog/overflow");

        vat.grab(
            ilk, urn, milk.clip, address(vow), -int256(dink), -int256(dart)
        );

        uint256 due = mul(dart, rate);
        vow.fess(due);

        {   // Avoid stack too deep
            // This calcuation will overflow if dart*rate exceeds ~10^14
            uint256 tab = mul(due, milk.chop) / WAD;
            Dirt = add(Dirt, tab);
            ilks[ilk].dirt = add(milk.dirt, tab);

            id = Clipper(milk.clip).kick({
                tab: tab,
                lot: dink,
                usr: urn,
                kpr: kpr
            });
        }

        emit Bark(ilk, urn, dink, dart, due, milk.clip, id);
    }

    function digs(bytes32 ilk, uint256 rad) external auth {
        Dirt = sub(Dirt, rad);
        ilks[ilk].dirt = sub(ilks[ilk].dirt, rad);
        emit Digs(ilk, rad);
    }

    function cage() external auth {
        live = 0;
        emit Cage();
    }
}

/*
    This is the `End` and it coordinates Global Settlement. This is an
    involved, stateful process that takes place over nine steps.

    First we freeze the system and lock the prices for each ilk.

    1. `cage()`:
        - freezes user entrypoints
        - cancels flop/flap auctions
        - starts cooldown period
        - stops pot drips

    2. `cage(ilk)`:
       - set the cage price for each `ilk`, reading off the price feed

    We must process some system state before it is possible to calculate
    the final dai / collateral price. In particular, we need to determine

      a. `gap`, the collateral shortfall per collateral type by
         considering under-collateralised CDPs.

      b. `debt`, the outstanding dai supply after including system
         surplus / deficit

    We determine (a) by processing all under-collateralised CDPs with
    `skim`:

    3. `skim(ilk, urn)`:
       - cancels CDP debt
       - any excess collateral remains
       - backing collateral taken

    We determine (b) by processing ongoing dai generating processes,
    i.e. auctions. We need to ensure that auctions will not generate any
    further dai income.

    In the two-way auction model (Flipper) this occurs when
    all auctions are in the reverse (`dent`) phase. There are two ways
    of ensuring this:

    4a. i) `wait`: set the cooldown period to be at least as long as the
           longest auction duration, which needs to be determined by the
           cage administrator.

           This takes a fairly predictable time to occur but with altered
           auction dynamics due to the now varying price of dai.

       ii) `skip`: cancel all ongoing auctions and seize the collateral.

           This allows for faster processing at the expense of more
           processing calls. This option allows dai holders to retrieve
           their collateral faster.

           `skip(ilk, id)`:
            - cancel individual flip auctions in the `tend` (forward) phase
            - retrieves collateral and debt (including penalty) to owner's CDP
            - returns dai to last bidder
            - `dent` (reverse) phase auctions can continue normally

    Option (i), `wait`, is sufficient (if all auctions were bidded at least
    once) for processing the system settlement but option (ii), `skip`,
    will speed it up. Both options are available in this implementation,
    with `skip` being enabled on a per-auction basis.

    In the case of the Dutch Auctions model (Clipper) they keep recovering
    debt during the whole lifetime and there isn't a max duration time
    guaranteed for the auction to end.
    So the way to ensure the protocol will not receive extra dai income is:

    4b. i) `snip`: cancel all ongoing auctions and seize the collateral.

           `snip(ilk, id)`:
            - cancel individual running clip auctions
            - retrieves remaining collateral and debt (including penalty)
              to owner's CDP

    When a CDP has been processed and has no debt remaining, the
    remaining collateral can be removed.

    5. `free(ilk)`:
        - remove collateral from the caller's CDP
        - owner can call as needed

    After the processing period has elapsed, we enable calculation of
    the final price for each collateral type.

    6. `thaw()`:
       - only callable after processing time period elapsed
       - assumption that all under-collateralised CDPs are processed
       - fixes the total outstanding supply of dai
       - may also require extra CDP processing to cover vow surplus

    7. `flow(ilk)`:
        - calculate the `fix`, the cash price for a given ilk
        - adjusts the `fix` in the case of deficit / surplus

    At this point we have computed the final price for each collateral
    type and dai holders can now turn their dai into collateral. Each
    unit dai can claim a fixed basket of collateral.

    Dai holders must first `pack` some dai into a `bag`. Once packed,
    dai cannot be unpacked and is not transferrable. More dai can be
    added to a bag later.

    8. `pack(wad)`:
        - put some dai into a bag in preparation for `cash`

    Finally, collateral can be obtained with `cash`. The bigger the bag,
    the more collateral can be released.

    9. `cash(ilk, wad)`:
        - exchange some dai from your bag for gems from a specific ilk
        - the number of gems is limited by how big your bag is
*/

contract End {
    // --- Auth ---
    mapping (address => uint256) public wards;
    function rely(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 1; emit Rely(usr); }
    function deny(address usr) external auth { wards[usr] = 0; emit Deny(usr); }
    modifier auth {
        require(wards[msg.sender] == 1, "End/not-authorized");
        _;
    }

    // --- Data ---
    Vat      public vat;   // CDP Engine
    Cat      public cat;
    Dog      public dog;
    Vow      public vow;   // Debt Engine
    Pot      public pot;
    Spotter  public spot;

    uint256  public live;  // Active Flag
    uint256  public when;  // Time of cage                   [unix epoch time]
    uint256  public wait;  // Processing Cooldown Length             [seconds]
    uint256  public debt;  // Total outstanding dai following processing [rad]

    mapping (bytes32 => uint256) public tag;  // Cage price              [ray]
    mapping (bytes32 => uint256) public gap;  // Collateral shortfall    [wad]
    mapping (bytes32 => uint256) public Art;  // Total debt per ilk      [wad]
    mapping (bytes32 => uint256) public fix;  // Final cash price        [ray]

    mapping (address => uint256)                      public bag;  //    [wad]
    mapping (bytes32 => mapping (address => uint256)) public out;  //    [wad]

    // --- Events ---
    event Rely(address indexed usr);
    event Deny(address indexed usr);

    event File(bytes32 indexed what, uint256 data);
    event File(bytes32 indexed what, address data);

    event Cage();
    event Cage(bytes32 indexed ilk);
    event Snip(bytes32 indexed ilk, uint256 indexed id, address indexed usr, uint256 tab, uint256 lot, uint256 art);
    event Skip(bytes32 indexed ilk, uint256 indexed id, address indexed usr, uint256 tab, uint256 lot, uint256 art);
    event Skim(bytes32 indexed ilk, address indexed urn, uint256 wad, uint256 art);
    event Free(bytes32 indexed ilk, address indexed usr, uint256 ink);
    event Thaw();
    event Flow(bytes32 indexed ilk);
    event Pack(address indexed usr, uint256 wad);
    event Cash(bytes32 indexed ilk, address indexed usr, uint256 wad);

    // --- Init ---
    constructor() public {
        wards[msg.sender] = 1;
        live = 1;
        emit Rely(msg.sender);
    }

    // --- Math ---
    uint256 constant WAD = 10 ** 18;
    uint256 constant RAY = 10 ** 27;
    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x + y;
        require(z >= x);
    }
    function sub(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require((z = x - y) <= x);
    }
    function mul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        require(y == 0 || (z = x * y) / y == x);
    }
    function min(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        return x <= y ? x : y;
    }
    function rmul(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = mul(x, y) / RAY;
    }
    function wdiv(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = mul(x, WAD) / y;
    }

    // --- Administration ---
    function file(bytes32 what, address data) external auth {
        require(live == 1, "End/not-live");
        if (what == "vat")  vat = Vat(data);
        else if (what == "cat")   cat = Cat(data);
        else if (what == "dog")   dog = Dog(data);
        else if (what == "vow")   vow = Vow(data);
        else if (what == "pot")   pot = Pot(data);
        else if (what == "spot") spot = Spotter(data);
        else revert("End/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }
    function file(bytes32 what, uint256 data) external auth {
        require(live == 1, "End/not-live");
        if (what == "wait") wait = data;
        else revert("End/file-unrecognized-param");
        emit File(what, data);
    }

    // --- Settlement ---
    function cage() external auth {
        require(live == 1, "End/not-live");
        live = 0;
        when = block.timestamp;
        vat.cage();
        cat.cage();
        dog.cage();
        vow.cage();
        spot.cage();
        pot.cage();
        emit Cage();
    }

    function cage(bytes32 ilk) external {
        require(live == 0, "End/still-live");
        require(tag[ilk] == 0, "End/tag-ilk-already-defined");
        (Art[ilk],,,,) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        (PipLike pip,) = spot.ilks(ilk);
        // par is a ray, pip returns a wad
        tag[ilk] = wdiv(spot.par(), uint256(pip.read()));
        emit Cage(ilk);
    }

    function snip(bytes32 ilk, uint256 id) external {
        require(tag[ilk] != 0, "End/tag-ilk-not-defined");

        (address _clip,,,) = dog.ilks(ilk);
        Clipper clip = Clipper(_clip);
        (, uint256 rate,,,) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        (, uint256 tab, uint256 lot, address usr,,) = clip.sales(id);

        vat.suck(address(vow), address(vow),  tab);
        clip.yank(id);

        uint256 art = tab / rate;
        Art[ilk] = add(Art[ilk], art);
        require(int256(lot) >= 0 && int256(art) >= 0, "End/overflow");
        vat.grab(ilk, usr, address(this), address(vow), int256(lot), int256(art));
        emit Snip(ilk, id, usr, tab, lot, art);
    }

    function skip(bytes32 ilk, uint256 id) external {
        require(tag[ilk] != 0, "End/tag-ilk-not-defined");

        (address _flip,,) = cat.ilks(ilk);
        Flipper flip = Flipper(_flip);
        (, uint256 rate,,,) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        (uint256 bid, uint256 lot,,,, address usr,, uint256 tab) = flip.bids(id);

        vat.suck(address(vow), address(vow),  tab);
        vat.suck(address(vow), address(this), bid);
        vat.hope(address(flip));
        flip.yank(id);

        uint256 art = tab / rate;
        Art[ilk] = add(Art[ilk], art);
        require(int256(lot) >= 0 && int256(art) >= 0, "End/overflow");
        vat.grab(ilk, usr, address(this), address(vow), int256(lot), int256(art));
        emit Skip(ilk, id, usr, tab, lot, art);
    }

    function skim(bytes32 ilk, address urn) external {
        require(tag[ilk] != 0, "End/tag-ilk-not-defined");
        (, uint256 rate,,,) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        (uint256 ink, uint256 art) = vat.urns(ilk, urn);

        uint256 owe = rmul(rmul(art, rate), tag[ilk]);
        uint256 wad = min(ink, owe);
        gap[ilk] = add(gap[ilk], sub(owe, wad));

        require(wad <= 2**255 && art <= 2**255, "End/overflow");
        vat.grab(ilk, urn, address(this), address(vow), -int256(wad), -int256(art));
        emit Skim(ilk, urn, wad, art);
    }

    function free(bytes32 ilk) external {
        require(live == 0, "End/still-live");
        (uint256 ink, uint256 art) = vat.urns(ilk, msg.sender);
        require(art == 0, "End/art-not-zero");
        require(ink <= 2**255, "End/overflow");
        vat.grab(ilk, msg.sender, msg.sender, address(vow), -int256(ink), 0);
        emit Free(ilk, msg.sender, ink);
    }

    function thaw() external {
        require(live == 0, "End/still-live");
        require(debt == 0, "End/debt-not-zero");
        require(vat.dai(address(vow)) == 0, "End/surplus-not-zero");
        require(block.timestamp >= add(when, wait), "End/wait-not-finished");
        debt = vat.debt();
        emit Thaw();
    }
    function flow(bytes32 ilk) external {
        require(debt != 0, "End/debt-zero");
        require(fix[ilk] == 0, "End/fix-ilk-already-defined");

        (, uint256 rate,,,) = vat.ilks(ilk);
        uint256 wad = rmul(rmul(Art[ilk], rate), tag[ilk]);
        fix[ilk] = mul(sub(wad, gap[ilk]), RAY) / (debt / RAY);
        emit Flow(ilk);
    }

    function pack(uint256 wad) external {
        require(debt != 0, "End/debt-zero");
        vat.move(msg.sender, address(vow), mul(wad, RAY));
        bag[msg.sender] = add(bag[msg.sender], wad);
        emit Pack(msg.sender, wad);
    }
    function cash(bytes32 ilk, uint256 wad) external {
        require(fix[ilk] != 0, "End/fix-ilk-not-defined");
        vat.flux(ilk, address(this), msg.sender, rmul(wad, fix[ilk]));
        out[ilk][msg.sender] = add(out[ilk][msg.sender], wad);
        require(out[ilk][msg.sender] <= bag[msg.sender], "End/insufficient-bag-balance");
        emit Cash(ilk, msg.sender, wad);
    }
}

interface DenyLike {
    function deny(address) external;
}

contract ESM {
    DSToken public immutable gem;   // collateral (MKR token)
    End     public immutable end;   // cage module
    address public immutable proxy; // Pause proxy
    uint256 public immutable min;   // minimum activation threshold [wad]

    mapping(address => uint256) public sum; // per-address balance
    uint256 public Sum; // total balance

    event Fire();
    event Join(address indexed usr, uint256 wad);

    constructor(address gem_, address end_, address proxy_, uint256 min_) public {
        gem = DSToken(gem_);
        end = End(end_);
        proxy = proxy_;
        min = min_;
    }

    function revokesGovernanceAccess() external view returns (bool ret) {
        ret = proxy != address(0);
    }

    // -- math --
    function add(uint256 x, uint256 y) internal pure returns (uint256 z) {
        z = x + y;
        require(z >= x);
    }

    function fire() external {
        require(Sum >= min,  "ESM/min-not-reached");

        if (proxy != address(0)) {
            end.vat().deny(proxy);
        }
        end.cage();

        emit Fire();
    }

    function deny(address target) external {
        require(Sum >= min,  "ESM/min-not-reached");

        DenyLike(target).deny(proxy);
    }

    function join(uint256 wad) external {
        require(end.live() == 1, "ESM/system-already-shutdown");

        sum[msg.sender] = add(sum[msg.sender], wad);
        Sum = add(Sum, wad);

        require(gem.transferFrom(msg.sender, address(this), wad), "ESM/transfer-failed");
        emit Join(msg.sender, wad);
    }

    function burn() external {
        uint256 balance = gem.balanceOf(address(this));
        try gem.burn(balance) {} catch { gem.transfer(address(0xdead), balance); }
    }
}

contract VatFab {
    function newVat(address owner) public returns (Vat vat) {
        vat = new Vat();
        vat.rely(owner);
        vat.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract JugFab {
    function newJug(address owner, address vat) public returns (Jug jug) {
        jug = new Jug(vat);
        jug.rely(owner);
        jug.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract VowFab {
    function newVow(address owner, address vat, address flap, address flop) public returns (Vow vow) {
        vow = new Vow(vat, flap, flop);
        vow.rely(owner);
        vow.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract CatFab {
    function newCat(address owner, address vat) public returns (Cat cat) {
        cat = new Cat(vat);
        cat.rely(owner);
        cat.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract DogFab {
    function newDog(address owner, address vat) public returns (Dog dog) {
        dog = new Dog(vat);
        dog.rely(owner);
        dog.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract DaiFab {
    function newDai(address owner, uint chainId) public returns (Dai dai) {
        dai = new Dai(chainId);
        dai.rely(owner);
        dai.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract DaiJoinFab {
    function newDaiJoin(address vat, address dai) public returns (DaiJoin daiJoin) {
        daiJoin = new DaiJoin(vat, dai);
    }
}

contract FlapFab {
    function newFlap(address owner, address vat, address gov) public returns (Flapper flap) {
        flap = new Flapper(vat, gov);
        flap.rely(owner);
        flap.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract FlopFab {
    function newFlop(address owner, address vat, address gov) public returns (Flopper flop) {
        flop = new Flopper(vat, gov);
        flop.rely(owner);
        flop.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract FlipFab {
    function newFlip(address owner, address vat, address cat, bytes32 ilk) public returns (Flipper flip) {
        flip = new Flipper(vat, cat, ilk);
        flip.rely(owner);
        flip.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract ClipFab {
    function newClip(address owner, address vat, address spotter, address dog, bytes32 ilk) public returns (Clipper clip) {
        clip = new Clipper(vat, spotter, dog, ilk);
        clip.rely(owner);
        clip.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract SpotFab {
    function newSpotter(address owner, address vat) public returns (Spotter spotter) {
        spotter = new Spotter(vat);
        spotter.rely(owner);
        spotter.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract PotFab {
    function newPot(address owner, address vat) public returns (Pot pot) {
        pot = new Pot(vat);
        pot.rely(owner);
        pot.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract EndFab {
    function newEnd(address owner) public returns (End end) {
        end = new End();
        end.rely(owner);
        end.deny(address(this));
    }
}

contract ESMFab {
    function newESM(address gov, address end, address proxy, uint min) public returns (ESM esm) {
        esm = new ESM(gov, end, proxy, min);
    }
}

contract PauseFab {
    function newPause(uint delay, address owner, DSAuthority authority) public returns(DSPause pause) {
        pause = new DSPause(delay, owner, authority);
    }
}

contract DssDeploy is DSAuth {
    VatFab     public vatFab;
    JugFab     public jugFab;
    VowFab     public vowFab;
    CatFab     public catFab;
    DogFab     public dogFab;
    DaiFab     public daiFab;
    DaiJoinFab public daiJoinFab;
    FlapFab    public flapFab;
    FlopFab    public flopFab;
    FlipFab    public flipFab;
    ClipFab    public clipFab;
    SpotFab    public spotFab;
    PotFab     public potFab;
    EndFab     public endFab;
    ESMFab     public esmFab;
    PauseFab   public pauseFab;

    Vat     public vat;
    Jug     public jug;
    Vow     public vow;
    Cat     public cat;
    Dog     public dog;
    Dai     public dai;
    DaiJoin public daiJoin;
    Flapper public flap;
    Flopper public flop;
    Spotter public spotter;
    Pot     public pot;
    End     public end;
    ESM     public esm;
    DSPause public pause;

    mapping(bytes32 => Ilk) public ilks;

    uint8 public step = 0;

    uint256 constant ONE = 10 ** 27;

    struct Ilk {
        Flipper flip;
        Clipper clip;
        address join;
    }

    constructor(
        VatFab vatFab_,
        JugFab jugFab_,
        VowFab vowFab_,
        CatFab catFab_,
        DogFab dogFab_,
        DaiFab daiFab_,
        DaiJoinFab daiJoinFab_,
        FlapFab flapFab_,
        FlopFab flopFab_,
        FlipFab flipFab_,
        ClipFab clipFab_,
        SpotFab spotFab_,
        PotFab potFab_,
        EndFab endFab_,
        ESMFab esmFab_,
        PauseFab pauseFab_
    ) public {
        vatFab = vatFab_;
        jugFab = jugFab_;
        vowFab = vowFab_;
        catFab = catFab_;
        dogFab = dogFab_;
        daiFab = daiFab_;
        daiJoinFab = daiJoinFab_;
        flapFab = flapFab_;
        flopFab = flopFab_;
        flipFab = flipFab_;
        clipFab = clipFab_;
        spotFab = spotFab_;
        potFab = potFab_;
        endFab = endFab_;
        esmFab = esmFab_;
        pauseFab = pauseFab_;
    }

    function rad(uint wad) internal pure returns (uint) {
        return wad * 10 ** 27;
    }

    function updateDeployed(
        Vat vat_,
        Jug jug_,
        Vow vow_,
        Cat cat_,
        Dog dog_,
        Dai dai_,
        DaiJoin daiJoin_,
        Flapper flap_,
        Flopper flop_,
        Spotter spot_,
        Pot pot_,
        End end_,
        ESM esm_,
        DSPause pause_
    ) external auth {
        require(address(vat) == address(0), "Already updated");
        vat = vat_;
        jug = jug_;
        vow = vow_;
        cat = cat_;
        dog = dog_;
        dai = dai_;
        daiJoin = daiJoin_;
        flap = flap_;
        flop = flop_;
        spotter = spot_;
        pot = pot_;
        end = end_;
        esm = esm_;
        pause = pause_;
     }

/*
    function deployVat() public auth {
        require(address(vatFab) != address(0), "Missing Fabs 1");
        require(address(flapFab) != address(0), "Missing Fabs 2");
        require(address(vat) == address(0), "VAT already deployed");
        vat = vatFab.newVat(address(this));
        spotter = spotFab.newSpotter(address(this), address(vat));

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(address(spotter));
    }

    function deployDai(uint256 chainId) public auth {
        require(address(vat) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        dai = daiFab.newDai(address(this), chainId);
        daiJoin = daiJoinFab.newDaiJoin(address(vat), address(dai));
        dai.rely(address(daiJoin));
    }

    function deployTaxation() public auth {
        require(address(vat) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        jug = jugFab.newJug(address(this), address(vat));
        pot = potFab.newPot(address(this), address(vat));

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(address(jug));
        vat.rely(address(pot));
    }

    function deployAuctions(address gov) public auth {
        require(gov != address(0), "Missing GOV address");
        require(address(jug) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        flap = flapFab.newFlap(address(this), address(vat), gov);
        flop = flopFab.newFlop(address(this), address(vat), gov);
        vow = vowFab.newVow(address(this), address(vat), address(flap), address(flop));

        // Internal references set up
        jug.file("vow", address(vow));
        pot.file("vow", address(vow));

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(address(flop));
        flap.rely(address(vow));
        flop.rely(address(vow));
    }

    function deployLiquidator() public auth {
        require(address(vow) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        cat = catFab.newCat(address(this), address(vat));
        dog = dogFab.newDog(address(this), address(vat));

        // Internal references set up
        cat.file("vow", address(vow));
        dog.file("vow", address(vow));

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(address(cat));
        vat.rely(address(dog));
        vow.rely(address(cat));
        vow.rely(address(dog));
    }

    function deployEnd() public auth {
        require(address(cat) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        end = endFab.newEnd(address(this));

        // Internal references set up
        end.file("vat", address(vat));
        end.file("cat", address(cat));
        end.file("dog", address(dog));
        end.file("vow", address(vow));
        end.file("pot", address(pot));
        end.file("spot", address(spotter));

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(address(end));
        cat.rely(address(end));
        dog.rely(address(end));
        vow.rely(address(end));
        pot.rely(address(end));
        spotter.rely(address(end));
    }

    function deployPause(uint delay, DSAuthority authority) public auth {
        require(address(dai) != address(0), "Missing previous step");
        require(address(end) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        pause = pauseFab.newPause(delay, address(0), authority);

        vat.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        cat.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        dog.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        vow.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        jug.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        pot.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        spotter.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        flap.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        flop.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
        end.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
    }

    function deployESM(address gov, uint256 min) public auth {
        require(address(pause) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy ESM
        esm = esmFab.newESM(gov, address(end), address(pause.proxy()), min);
        end.rely(address(esm));
        vat.rely(address(esm));
    }
*/
    function deployCollateralFlip(bytes32 ilk, address join, address pip) public auth {
        require(ilk != bytes32(""), "Missing ilk name");
        require(join != address(0), "Missing join address");
        require(pip != address(0), "Missing pip address");
        require(address(pause) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        ilks[ilk].flip = flipFab.newFlip(address(this), address(vat), address(cat), ilk);
        ilks[ilk].join = join;
        Spotter(spotter).file(ilk, "pip", address(pip)); // Set pip

        // Internal references set up
        cat.file(ilk, "flip", address(ilks[ilk].flip));
        vat.init(ilk);
        jug.init(ilk);

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(join);
        cat.rely(address(ilks[ilk].flip));
        ilks[ilk].flip.rely(address(cat));
        ilks[ilk].flip.rely(address(end));
        ilks[ilk].flip.rely(address(esm));
        ilks[ilk].flip.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
    }

    function deployCollateralClip(bytes32 ilk, address join, address pip, address calc) public auth {
        require(ilk != bytes32(""), "Missing ilk name");
        require(join != address(0), "Missing join address");
        require(pip != address(0), "Missing pip address");
        require(calc != address(0), "Missing calc address");
        require(address(pause) != address(0), "Missing previous step");

        // Deploy
        ilks[ilk].clip = clipFab.newClip(address(this), address(vat), address(spotter), address(dog), ilk);
        ilks[ilk].join = join;
        Spotter(spotter).file(ilk, "pip", address(pip)); // Set pip

        // Internal references set up
        dog.file(ilk, "clip", address(ilks[ilk].clip));
        ilks[ilk].clip.file("vow", address(vow));
        ilks[ilk].clip.file("calc", calc);
        vat.init(ilk);
        jug.init(ilk);

        // Internal auth
        vat.rely(join);
        vat.rely(address(ilks[ilk].clip));
        dog.rely(address(ilks[ilk].clip));
        ilks[ilk].clip.rely(address(dog));
        ilks[ilk].clip.rely(address(end));
        ilks[ilk].clip.rely(address(esm));
        ilks[ilk].clip.rely(address(pause.proxy()));
    }

    function releaseAuth() public auth {
        vat.deny(address(this));
        cat.deny(address(this));
        dog.deny(address(this));
        vow.deny(address(this));
        jug.deny(address(this));
        pot.deny(address(this));
        dai.deny(address(this));
        spotter.deny(address(this));
        flap.deny(address(this));
        flop.deny(address(this));
        end.deny(address(this));
    }

    function releaseAuthFlip(bytes32 ilk) public auth {
        ilks[ilk].flip.deny(address(this));
    }

    function releaseAuthClip(bytes32 ilk) public auth {
        ilks[ilk].clip.deny(address(this));
    }
}

Contract Security Audit

Contract ABI

[{"inputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"chainId_","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"constructor"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Approval","type":"event"},{"anonymous":true,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes4","name":"sig","type":"bytes4"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes32","name":"foo","type":"bytes32"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes32","name":"bar","type":"bytes32"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"bytes","name":"fax","type":"bytes"}],"name":"LogNote","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Transfer","type":"event"},{"inputs":[],"name":"DOMAIN_SEPARATOR","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"PERMIT_TYPEHASH","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"allowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"approve","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"balanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"burn","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"decimals","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"}],"name":"deny","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"mint","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"name","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"nonces","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"holder","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"nonce","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"expiry","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"bool","name":"allowed","type":"bool"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"permit","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"}],"name":"rely","outputs":[],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"symbol","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"totalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transfer","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferFrom","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"inputs":[],"name":"version","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"wards","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"}]

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Constructor Arguments (ABI-Encoded and is the last bytes of the Contract Creation Code above)

000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a86a

-----Decoded View---------------
Arg [0] : chainId_ (uint256): 43114

-----Encoded View---------------
1 Constructor Arguments found :
Arg [0] : 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a86a


Deployed ByteCode Sourcemap

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Swarm Source

ipfs://fa48af1e0c670a63657c606ce4da2ae2c4c205ad438f56a53342c7e37afed344
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